Show Menu
Cheatography

Overview of the rules from both French I and French II

Numbers

0
zero
10
dix
1
un
11
onze
2
deux
12
douze
3
trois
13
treize
4
quatre
14
quatorze
5
cinq
15
quinze
6
six
16
seize
7
sept
17
dix-sept
8
huit
18
dix-huit
9
neuf
19
dix-neuf

Numbers

20
vingt
21
vingt et un
22
vingt-deux
30
trente
31
trente et un
32
trente­-deux
40
quarante
41
quarante et un
42
quaran­te-deux
50
cinquante
51
cinquante et un
52
cinqua­nte­-deux
60
soixante
61
soixante et un
62
soixan­te-deux
70
soixan­te-dix
71
soixante et onze
72
soixan­te-­douze
80
quatre­-vingts
81
quatre­-vi­ngt-un
82
quatre­-vi­ngt­-deux
90
quatre­-vi­ngt-dix
91
quatre­-vi­ngt­-onze
92
quatre­-vi­ngt­-douze
100
cent
101
cent un
102
cent deux
200
deux cents
201
deux cent un
202
deux cent deux
1000
mille
2000
deux mille

Demons­trative Adjectives

This, That, These, Those + Noun
Ce
Masc. Sing.
Cet
Masc. Sing. (w/vowel)
Cette
Fem. Sing.
Ces
Fem. & Masc. Plural

Questions Requiring simply a Yes or No

Tran­slated as "­Do,­" "­Did­," "­Is,­" "­Are­"
Two Ways:
1) Est_ce que + Subject + Verb + end of sentence
2) Conjugated Verb + Subject +end of sentence
-3rd Person Singular: If the verb does not end with "­-d" or "­-i" you need to add "_ t _" between the verb and subject

Questions Soliciting More Inform­ation

Engl­ish
French
Form
Who (subject)
qui
+ Verbs
Whom (direct object)
qui (no contra­ction)
+ Esc_ce que...
What (D.O.)
que/ qu' (w/vowel)
+ Esc_ce que...
Where
+ Esc_ce que...
When
quand/ à quelle heure
+ Esc_ce que...
Why
pourquoi
+ Esc_ce que...
How
comment
+ Esc_ce que...
How much
combien
+ Esc_ce que...
How many (+noun)
combien de (+noun)
+ Esc_ce que...
From where
d' où
+ Esc_ce que...
If Prepos­ition:
-Prepo­sition + qui for people
-Prepo­sition + quoi for things

Imperfect of Avoir/ Être

Avoir
Être
j' avais
j' étais
tu avais
tu étais
il avait
il était
nous avions
nous étions
vous aviez
vous étiez
ils avaient
ils étaient

PC and Imp. in Same Sentence

1) The imp. is used to describe an action­/event that was going on. The PC is used for the action that took place against that background and may be interr­upted (we do not know if it ended).
Example
She was reading when he called
2) Imperfect is used after the condit­ional (if clause)
Example
He asked me if I unders­tood
3) To describe a change of condit­ion/in state of mind or a reacti­on/­result to an event (big/d­ramatic change)
Example
It was hot and sunny that afternoon, we were on the beach and all of a sudden it rained

Imperatif - How to give a command

How?
1) Only with the 3 subject pronouns: Tu, Nous, and Vous. Conjugate your verbs normally in the present tense
2) Drop the "­tu,­" "­nou­s," and "­vou­s." Drop the "­s" for the Tu form of ER verbs or verbs conjugated like ER verbs
3) If negation, the "ne pas" goes around the verb as usual.

Relative Pronouns

When?
- To combine two sentences or give clarifying inform­ation
Tran­sla­tion
Used For
That, Who
Persons
Which, Whom
Things
How?
- Qui (subject)/ Que (direct object) + rest of sentence
Agre­ement of Past Participle with the Auxiliary Avoir
- The past participle will agree in number and gender with the direct object of the D.O. is in front of the auxiliary.
*No agreement with "­en" (direct object)

The Condit­ional

When?
- To express what would happen; if certain conditions existed: could
How?
Future stem + Imperfect endings (ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient)

Expres­sions Showing a Sudden Change

All of a sudden
tout à coup
Suddenly
souda­ine­ment
Then
alors

Pronoun "­Y"

When?
- To replace a place/­loc­ation introduced by "­à" or any other prepos­itions (sur, dans, devant, etc.)
- To replace "à + thing"
"à + person­" > indirect object pronouns (lui/leur)

Pronoun "­En"

How?
Replaces Direct Object Pronouns
When?
Direct Objects introduced by 1) Partitive Articles, 2) Indefinite Articles, 3) Numbers, 4) Expres­sions of Quantity, 5) Objects of the Prepos­ition "­de" (de + thing/ de + infini­tive)

Indirect Object Pronouns

- Compli­ments the Direct Object indirectly
When?
- It tells to whom or for whom an action is performed. When a person is the indirect object of a verb, you can use a prepos­ition "­à" to indicate the action is being done to that person.
For/To...
Him/Her
Lui
 
Them
Leur
Where?
The Indirect Object will be 1) In front of the conjugated verb, or 2) If conjugated verb and one infini­tive, pronoun is between

Two Pronouns in the Same Sentence

Order
(1)Ref­lexive (2)Ind­irect (3)Direct (4)Y (5)En
Exce­ption
If you have a combin­ation of a direct object and an indirect object lui or leur, then the order is: (1)Direct Object (2)Lui­/Leur
 

Conjug­ation of Regular ER Verbs

Verb
Ending
Tran­sla­tion
Je parl
e
I... speak/am speaking
Tu parl
es
You...
Il parl
e
He...
Nous parl
ons
We...
Vous parl
ez
You...
Ils parl
ent
They...

Special ER Verbs

Infi­nitive ends in:
Case
-ger
Nous ending is: -eons
-cer
Nous ending is: -çons
-yer
"­y" changes to "­i" except for Nous and Vous
Verb
Acheter
Accent on "­e" except for Nous and Vous

Conjug­ation of IR Verbs

Verb
Ending
Tran­sla­tion
Je fin
is
I... finish/am finishing
Tu fin
is
You...
Il fin
it
He...
Nous fin
issons
We...
Vous fin
issez
You...
Ils fin
issent
They...

Conjug­ation of RE Verbs

Verb
Ending
Tran­sla­tion
Je vend
s
I... sell/am selling
Tu vend
s
You...
Il vend
-
He...
Nous vend
ons
We...
Vous vend
ez
You...
Ils vend
ent
They...

Compar­ative Adjectives

Engl­ish
French
as adjective as
aussi adj. que
more adj./ adj.-er than
plus adj. que
less adj. than
moins adj. que

Negations

ne... pas
does not
ne... jamais
never
ne... plus
no longer
ne... rien
nothin­g/a­nything
ne... personne
no one/anyone
-Rule: Ne (Verb) Pas
-In PC and Near Future, "­per­son­ne" goes at the end of the sentence

Possessive Adjectives

Engl­ish
French
Gend­er/­Num­ber
My
Ma
Fem. Sing.
 
Mon
Masc. Sing.
 
Mes
Plural
Your
Ta
F. S.
(s. inf.)
Ton
M. S.
 
Tes
Pl.
His/H­er/Its
Sa
F. S.
 
Son
M. S.
 
Ses
Pl.
Our
Notre
F. & M. Sing.
 
Nos
Plural
Your
Votre
F. & M. Sing.
(pl./ formal)
Vos
Plural
Their
Leur
F. & M. Sing.
 
Leurs
Plural

Past Tense (Passe Compose) of Regular Verbs

Past Partic­iple
Ending
Exam­ple
-ending in ER
é
jouer > joué
-ending in IR
i
finir > fini
-ending in RE
u
vendre > vendu
-How?: Conjugate the auxiliary verbs (avoir or être) in the present + past participle of the verb
-Trans­lated as: "I played/did play"
-Negation: Around auxiliary

Prepos­ition: À

In, At, On, To, With (only in food context)
à la
Fem. Sing.
à l'
Vowel or H
au
Masc. Sing.
aux
Plural
Exce­ption
-To go to a person's place/­house: à > chez

Prepos­ition: De

From, About, Of
de la
Fem. Sing.
de l'
Vowel or H
du
Masc. Sing.
des
Plural
Nega­tions
du > de
de la > de
de l' > d'

Reflexive Verbs

Je me
Nous nous
Tu te
Vous vous
Il se
Ils se
 
Refl­exive
I wash myself
Je me lave
I wash my hair
Je me lave le cheveux
With Negation
I do not wash my hair
Je ne me lave pas les cheveux
If Reflexive Is Infini­tive
I am going to brush my hair
Je vais me brosser les cheveux
Idioms That Are Always Reflex­ive
To have fun
s'amuser
To hurry
se dépêcher
To feel
se sentir (conju­gated like servir, dormir, etc.)
To be bored
s'ennuyer
To use
se servir +de
To be called
s'appeler
To get mad
se fâcher
To take care of
s'occuper +de
To rest
se reposer
To go for a walk
se promener
To be located
se trouver
To meet
se rencontrer
To fight
se disputer
Special ER Verbs
Like achèter
Accent over "­e" except Nous and Vous
Like s'appeler
Double the "­l" except for Nous and Vous
Like s'ennv­oyer
"y" becomes "­i" except Nous and Vous
Refl­exive In Past
Like the verbs in the house:
-auxi­liary "to be"
-past participle agrees in number and gender (except if followed by a part of the body: direct object)
She washed herself
Elle s'est lavée
She washed her hair
Elle s'est lavé les cheveux
In the Past with Negation
Subject + ne + reflexive pronoun + to be + pas + past partic­iple
I did not wash myself
Je ne me suis pas lavé

Pluperfect

Tran­slated as: "­had­"
-> First in order of events
How?
- Conjugate "­avo­ir" or "­êtr­e" in imperfect + past participle (needs to agree in number/ gender).

Expres­sions that Utilize Pluperfect

Yesterday
Hier
Last night
Hier soir
Last week
La samaine dernière
Last month
La mois dernière
Yesterday morning
Hier matin
Yesterday afternoon
Hier après-midi
One month ago
Il y a un mois
One week ago
Il y a une semaine

Future Simple (Future)

When?
- For any action that will take place in the future (shall, will, etc.)
- After:
quand/ lorsque
when
dès que/ aussitôt que
as soon as
How?
- Take the infinitive form of the verb + avoir endings (ai, as, a, ons, ez, ont).
- If the infinitive ends with an "­e," then drop the "­e"
- Note the irregular stems
- Jeter > becomes "­jet­ter­" in future.
- Verbs like "­ach­ete­r," > accent over the "­e" for all forms in the future.
- Verbs like "s' appele­r" > becomes "s' appell­er" in future.
- Verbs ending in "­yer­" > "­y" becomes "­i" for all subject pronouns in the future.
 

Adjectives That Go Before the Noun

Adje­ctive
Tran­sla­tion
Petit
Small
Grand
Big
Joli
Pretty
Bon
Good
Mauvais
Bad
Beau
Beautiful
Nouveau
New
Vieux
Old

Beau/ Nouveau/ Vieux

Masc. Sing.
Plural
Fem. Sing.
Plural
Beau/ Bel (w/vowel)
Beaux
Belle
Belles
Nouveau/ Nouvel (w/vowel)
Nouveaux
Nouvelle
Nouvelles
Vieux/ Vieil (w/vowel)
Vieux
Vieille
Vieilles

Adjective Agreement

Fem. Sing.
+e
Fem. Pl.
+es
Masc. Sing.
+s
Irre­gular Femini­ne:
Long
Longue
Blanc
Blanche
Cher
Chére
Sérieux
Sérieuse
Favori
Favorite
Violet
Violette
-Agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies
Fem. Sing.
-Placed after the noun (except: jolt, petit, bon, etc.)
-Excep­tions: Never Agree
1)Snob, Saper, Sympa
2)Orange, Marron
3)Bon, Marché

Descri­ptive Adjectives

What/ Which + Noun:
quel
Masc. Sing.
quel
Masc. Sing.
quels
Masc. Plural
quelle
Fem. Sing.
quelles
Fem. Plural
The Whole/ The Entire:
Tout(e)
Singular
tous
Masc. Plural
toutes
Fem. Plural
tous
Masc. Plural
 
All/ Each/ Every:

Sports­/Ho­bbies

"To play"
Sport
Jouer + au, à la, aux
Sports w/ a ball
Faire + du, de la
Can be used w/ All sports

Imperfect

How?
Conjugate your verb in present >the nous (1st Plural) form -ons then add the imperfect endings (ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient)
When?
1) To describe past continuous actions- what was going on, such as in: "I was walkin­g"
2) For past habitual/ repeated actions such as in: "We used to/would sail every day"
3) For any descri­ptions of Time, Weather, Feelin­gs/­Emo­tions, Appearance
4) 95% of time, certain verbs that denote a mental action­/co­ndi­tion- emotional state rather than a physical state would be in imperfect.
Mental Actions Verbs
être
to be
savoir
to know
avoir
to have
conna­ître
to know
vouloir
to want
aimer
to like/love
pouvoir
can/able to
préférer
to prefer
croire
to believe
penser
to think
esperer
to hope
Time expres­sions or adverbs often used with the imperf­ect:
d'hab­itude - usually/ generally
chaque jour/ tous les jours -every day
souvent - often
régul­ièr­ement - regularly
toujours - always

Weather Expres­sions

Verb
Pres­ent
Past
Impe­rfect
To rain
Il pleut
Il a plu
Il pleuvait
To snow
Il neige
Il a neige
Il neigeait
To Freeze
Il gèle
Il a gelé
Il gelait

Connaître vs. Savoir

Tran­sla­tion: "To Know"
Use Connaî­tre:
1) When you know in the sense of "Be famili­ar" or "Be acquai­nte­d" with someone, something, or a place (no learning process needed).
Use Savoir:
1) When you know a specific fact because you learned, memorized, or researched it.
2) To translate: "To know how to"
3) When the verb "To know" is followed immedi­ately by a clause.

In/To/From a Place

 
Masc. Country
Fem. Country
City
In/To
au, aux
en
à
From
du, des
de, d'
de
- Continents are feminine
- Most countries ending with an "­e" are feminine (except "le mexiqu­e").
- Countries ending with anything other than "­e" are masculine.

Reciprocal Verbs

Used to express an action or intera­ction between two or more people. They can be either a direct object or an indirect object.
How?
Use the reflexive pronouns: me, te, se, nous, vous, and se. Conjugate the verb regularly.
- Example:
They write each other
 
Ils s' écrivent
In past tense, make the usual agreement (with the reflexive pronoun).
- Except­ions:
1) If Direct Object follows the past participle > no agreement
2) If the verb is followed by "­à" (intra­nsi­tive) > no agreement

Causative Faire

When?
When you do not do the action yourself, you have someone or something else do it for you.
How?
* Faire (conju­gated in the approp­riate tense) + Infinitive of the main verb.
* Pronoun always in front of faire
* In PC, the past participle does not agree with the D.O.

If Clauses: Si

Sena­rio
Result Clause
Si + Present
Must be in Present or Future
- Certain Fact
- What will happen
Si + Imperfect
Must be in Condit­ional
- *If a condition existed
- What would/­could happen (Doubtful)

Imperfect of Irregular Verbs

aller
j'allais, tu allais, il/elle allait, nous allions, vous alliez, ils/elles allaient
avoir
j'avais, tu avais, il/elle avait, nous avions, vous aviez, ils/elles avaient
faire
je faisais, tu faisais, il/elle faisait, nous faisions, vous faisiez, ils/elles faisaient
pouvoir
je pouvais, tu pouvais, il/elle pouvait, nous pouvions, vous pouviez, ils/elles pouvaient
venir
je venais, tu venais, il/elle venait, nous venions, vous veniez, ils/elles venaient
voir
je voyais, tu voyais, il/elle voyait, nous voyions, vous voyiez, ils/elles voyaient

Direct Object Pronouns

me
mes
te
you (sing.)
le/la
it/him/her
nous
we
vous
you (pl. or formal)
les
them
- All pronouns (except stressed: moi, toi, lui, nous, vous, eux, elles) go in front of the verb (prese­nt/PC)
*Never separate verb and pronouns
- If you have a conjugated verb and an infini­tive, the pronoun(s) goes between the conjugated verb and the infinitive
- In past, pronoun goes before the auxiliary
- me, te, le/la + vowel or h, becomes m', t', and l' respec­tively
       
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          French Cheat Sheet