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One and two dimensional motion
Formula
speed 
s = d/t > 50 + 30 = 80 miles, 1+1 = 2h > 80 miles/2h = 40 mph 
velocity 
v = ∆x/t 
average velocity 
v avg = ∆x/∆t = xf − xi/tf − ti > 100 m in 10.61 s > xf = 100 m, xi = 0 m, tf = 10.61 s, ti = 0 s > v avg = 100 m  0 m / 10.61 s  0 s = 100/10.61 = 9.43 m/s 
Speed and Velocity
speed 
the distance traveled per unit of time. Speed is a scalar, a quantity that is described by magnitude alone. Constant speed refers to a fixed distance per unit of time. Average speed includes the total distance and total time. 
velocity 
the displacement of an object per unit of time. Since displacement includes a direction, so does velocity. Speed with direction. Velocity is a vector a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. 
vector 
a quantity that has both magnitude and direction 
reference frame 
the position from which an event is observed 
motion map 
an image that represents the position, velocity, and acceleration of an object at onesecond intervals 
scalar 
a quantity that is described by magnitude alone 
Motion and reference frame 
All motion is relative. It depends on a reference frame. An object may appear to move faster or slower depending on the reference frame. 
average velocity 
The slope of a line changes when the velocity of an object changes > The steeper the slope, the greater the velocity. The average velocity will be different than any of the other. Any point on the line will give only an instantaneous velocity. 
change in direction 
A change in direction is represented when the line on a positiontime graph changes from a positive slope to a negative. slope or from a negative slope to a positive slope. A negative slope indicates an object moving towards the origin. A positive slope indicates an object moving away from the origin. 
No motion 
horizontal line  means object is not moving > The object’s position does not change 
Motion 
Displayed in a vector ! 


Horizontal motion example
Displacement during constant acceleration
Acceleration
positive acceleration 
an increase in velocity over time 
negative acceleration 
a decrease in velocity over time 
acceleration 
the rate at which velocity changes over time 
constant 
staying the same; unchanging 
Positive acceleration 
speeds up in the positive direction. slows down in the negative direction 
Negative acceleration 
slow down down in the positive direction. speeds up in the negative direction. 
Slope 
of the line on a velocity vs. time graph represents acceleration. Positive slope = acceleration, negative slope = negative acceleration 


vectors
quadrant 
a quarter of the coordinate plane 
components 
the two parts of a vector that are perpendicular to each other 
resultant vector 
the sum of two or more vectors 
vector resolution 
the process by which the components of a vector are determined 
Properties of a vector 
A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors: Displacement, velocity, acceleration. Vectors are drawn using an arrow 
Sign of a component
The sign of a component depends on the quadrant of the coordinate
system it is in.
Projectile Motion
projectile 
an object that is set in motion following a path in which the only force acting on it is gravity. 
inertia 
the natural tendency of objects to resist a change in motion 
projectile motion 
the curved motion that results from the combination of an object’s horizontal inertia and the force due to gravity pulling the object downward. I.e. A ball rolling of the table, A player shooting a jump shot > Projectiles follow a parabolic path 
parabolic 
having the shape of a parabola 
vectors 
Vectors are used to describe motion in two dimensions. Vectors can be broken down into x and y components. The components of a vector are the two parts of a vector that are perpendicular to each other 

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