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French Revolution and Napolean Cheat Sheet by

The Beginning of the Revolu­tionary Era

Impact of American Revoltion on Europe
Confirmed Legitmiacy of Englig­hte­nment ideas and showed that ideas could actually created a new government
Army officers such as Marquis de Lafayette influenced the early stages of the French Rev when soliders returned to France with ideas of individual liberties, republ­ica­nism, and poular soveri­gnity
3 branches of govter­nment establ­ished that involved seperation of powers and a Consis­tut­ation including a Bill of Rights
French Revoltuion has a bigger impact to Europe since it was more radical in its efforts to construct a new political and social order

Estates of the Ancien Regime/Old Regime

First Estate­:Clergy
Charac­ter­istics
Church owned about 10% of land, divided since there was clergy from aristo­crats but also poor clergy
Privilages
Extemp­tions from the taille­(land tax)
Second Estate­:No­bility
Charac­ter­istics
About 25% of land owned and made up about 2% of the popula­tion, nobility held many important positions in govt, military, law, and church and was divided between sword nobility and robe nobility
Privilages
Tax exemptions and other privilages such as power and money
Third Estate­:Co­mmoners
Charac­ter­istics
made up of the Bourge­oisie, City Workers, and peasants, and made up about 97% percent of the population but most owned no land and had forced obliga­tions to nobles
 
Included skilled town dwellers who lost purchasing power dur to the rising cost of bread, leading to mob actions
Bourge­oisie
the middle class who were part of the third estate and controlled trade, manufa­cto­ring, and finance, but excluded from social and political privilages by nobles

Problems facing the French Monarchy

Bad Harvests
caused food shortages, rising food prices, and increase unempl­oyment in cities
Poverty
1/3 of the country poor and higher rates in the country
Ideas of Philos­ophes
Ideas circulated among bourge­iosie and noble elite causing privilages and insitu­ations to come under criticism Rousseau a major influe­nce
Failure to make Reforms
Parliament blocked royal decrees and acted as "­def­enders of libert­y" aginst the monarchy but ended up pushing their own interests
Financial Crisis:an immediate cause of the revolution
Mouting Debt
Government expedi­tures grew because of war and spending, causing the governemnt to keep on borrowing money with not enough taxes, ended up causing 1/2 of spending to be on interest and private lenders refussing borrowing more
Calonne's "­ass­embly of notabl­es"
wanted a complete change of fiscal and admini­str­ative systems but group and government refused to cooperate and caused more problems
Summoning of Esates General
Nobility was forced to call meant that nation's consent was needed for taxes
Jacquis Necker
exposed the inadeq­uncies of the monarchy's monetary policies, viewed as the first steps twoeard reform

Culture and Society in the Enligh­tenment

Rococo art
grace and gentle action, curves, interlaced designs, secular pursuit of pleasure, hapiness and love. Ex. Watteau who drew views of aristo­cractic life with sadness underneath and Neucann whose Barquoe Bococo work was used in palaces and churches, Bishop's place as a spirtul adn secuular themes were interc­han­gable
Neocla­ssicism
Emerges in France, recaptues the dignity and simplicity of the Classical style, ex. The Oath of Horatii in which 3 brothers swore an oath to scarficice lives for country, moral seriou­sness and emphasis on honor and patriotism
Music on soceity
Handal and Bach-B­arquoe, Hayndn and Mozart­-Cl­ass­ical, music depended on patron, Bach-music to worship God, Handel­-Public peices, Hayden and Mozart­-or­che­stral huge and unusual pieices , best known music with the invention of religious music even though music was very secular
modern novel
novel was to write friction with no rules on how to write and growing focus on sentim­ental and emotional
high culture and popular culture
High Cultur­e-l­iterary and aritistic world of educated and wealthy, Popular cultur­e-w­riteen and unwritten lore of masses passed orally, new literature aimed more at populat culture
18th century education
schools for elites, largely concen­trated on latin and greek classics, schools for girls focued on religion and domestic skills
death penalty
upper class execututed by simple beheadings but lower classes were subject to torture
Impact of On Crimes and Punishment
opposing captial punishment and in favor of impris­onment, lead to a decline in corporal and captial punish­ments and prisons
Hierarchy of medicine
physicans, surgeons, apothe­caries
Ascpects of popular culture
carniv­al-­ind­ulg­ences, before lent, festiv­als­-va­rierty of celebr­ations, special occass­ions, Tavern­s-g­ath­ering place of common people
Literary rates
upper class more literature with peasants part of popular culuture, hierachy rates of peasants increasing
 

Esates General Beginning

Compos­ition of Estate­s-G­eneral
Repres­entives of 3 estates with the 3rd estate having twice the delegates that included legal and urban repres­entives
Cahiers de doleances advocate consis­tut­ional government
grievances drawn by the 3rd estates that petion the monarchy for changes
Estates General meets and questions about voting occurs
Voting by order meant aristo­cractic control while voting by head meant each repres­entive which was suppor­tedby bourge­rosis and some nobles who were influenced by the American Revolution and wanted reform involving reason and utility

National Assembly

Abbe Sieyes "What is the 3rd Estate­?"
The 3rd estate had double repres­ent­ation so they could turn the estates into a single chamber legisl­ative. The feeling was not completly wide spread since some wanted change in respect to the king
National Assembly declared June 17
the 3rd estate responded on the question on how to vote by declaring themselves as the National Assembly and deciding to create a consis­tuation
Tennis Court Oath-June 20
Swore to make a consis­tuation that lead to the King threating to dissovle the Esates­-Ge­neral. Considered the first steps of the French Revolution since the 3rd estate had no legal right to act as the National Assembly

Interv­ention of Common People

 
Commoners would be mobilized to support whatever party's interest
attack on the Bastile, July 14th
an urban uprsing, causing the King to increase the number of troops, angering the public. Prison surrunder symbolized a great victory for the Revolution and a Triump over despotism. King accepted the reality which signaled the collapse of royal authority
Marquis de Lafayette
appointed commander of the National Gaurd,a citizen milita, by the King
Popular Revolu­tions in numerous cities
collpase of royal authoity paralled with peasant rebellions in countr­yside
Peasant Rebellions and the Great Fear
resentment of the seigneur system, peasant rebellions with a panic that fears of invasion

Destru­ction of the Old Regime

Seigne­urial Rights abolished
destroyed the relics of feudalism, support for abolis­hment to calm the peasants and abolis­hment for the principle of equality
Declar­ation of the Rights of Man and Citizen
reflected the ideas of philos­ophies and owed to the Decler­ation of Indepe­ndence, natural rights and life, property, security, and resist­ance, equal rights for all men
Olympe de Gouges and the Decler­ation of the Rights of Women and Female Citizens
women have the same rights as men and the National Assembly ignored women
The Women's March to Versailles
women march for bread to Versailles and then the Royal family forced to move to Paris, example of how crowd influenced politics

Religion and the Churches

Area Protestant and Catholic
Protes­tan­t:S­can­dinavia and north german states, england, scotland, and united provinces, Cathol­ic-­Spain, Protugal, France, Italy
Downfall of Jesuits
Their power lead to enemeies and nation­ali­zation of church meant contro­lling Jesuits and thus kicked out of the church and dissolved
pogroms
jewish commun­ities looted and massacred
pietism
movement in Germany that goals was to foster a personal experience with God as the focus of a true relgious experience and helped challenge the growth of diesm
John Wesley
everyone should experience God and open their doors to his grace which lead to Methodism and the revival of Christ­anity and the need for a spirtual experience

Economic Expanison

Regional breakdown of population growth
Overall large population growths in russia, france, prussia, and britain
Reasons for population growth
decline of death rate because of increase in food and new crops, end of bubonic plague, more women married and better living conditiosn
Shift in child care
childhood become an important part of child life, child dressed more like kids, breast feeding more commone, infant­icide comabated by establ­ishing founduling homes
Differ­ences in marraige
lower classes marreid later to save money for household, upper class marrying the same time as previous but less children

Social Order of the 18th century

Peasants made up 85% of the European population
Difference between peasants and serfs
peasants were tenant farmers who owed tithes and fees and were controlled by nobles while serfs were bound to a lord's estate and had to work on the lord's land
Lifestyle of European nobility
played an important role in military and governemtn with having the best roles, government offices gave them noble status and land
Aristo­cractic way of life
nobles lived on country estates and did not partic­ipate in court as much, travel an important part of life and a major part of education
Problems that arose in urban areas
High death rates among children because of living condit­ions, overcr­owing because of immigr­ants, poverty because of lack of jobs
 

Opposition from Abroad

Decler­ation of Pillnitz
by austria and prussia that other European powers should help put the French king back in power
decler­ation of war on Austria
people wanted wat since Reacti­onaries hoped it would cool the Revolution and lead to the old Regime, lefists hoped war would consol­idate the Revolution and spread
Marsei­llaise becomes a national anthem
French war song sung when national graudsmen called to defend Paris
sans-c­ulo­tte­s(w­ithout breaches)
defear in war and economics cauased popular groups, power passed from assembly to Paris commune which was mostly made of them
insecu­ration in Aug 1792
groups attached the King and legisl­ative and wanted a national convention to choose future government

The Radical Revolution

Paris Commune lead by George Danton­-ex­cutes suspected traitors
sought revenge for those who helped the King, Treachery fears increased by Prussia army on France
National Convention meets in Septemeber
acts as soverign ruling body in France
Universal Male Suffrage
everymale included
abolition of the monarchy
establ­ishment of a republic
spilt into fracti­ons­-Gi­rondins and the "­Mou­nta­in"(­Mon­tag­nards)
over fate of the King, both members of the Jacobins

The Catholic Church

Land confis­cated to issue assignats
based on collateral of nation­alized chruch property and Church secula­rized
Civil Consti­tution of the Clergy
the clergy elected by the people and paid by the state, forced to accept the Civil Consti­tution, Church now enemy of the Revolution

Consti­tution of 1791

Establ­ishment of a Consti­tution monarchy with real powers residing in the Legisl­ative Assembly
King had few powers and Legisl­ative assembly elected by a few affluent members of society
distin­ction of active and passive citizens
active citizens were 25 yrs old or above, pay taxes and vote for electors who chose deputies who payed even more taxes
Admini­str­ative restru­cturing
France divided into equal depart­ments with district and commun­ities with officals, government was mostly in the hands of bourge­iosie

Opposition from Within

Clerics
angered by the Civil Consti­tuation of the Clergy
Lower Classes
hurt by the rising cost of living because of assignats inflation
Peasants
opposed to dues not abandoned
radical political club, the Jacobins, created to offer new solutions
formed a group all around France, members were elite of local socity
continuing financial pressure
tax envasion counti­nued, politicans still unified on trust in the King
King attempts to flee to Verennes
leads to the National Assembly saying he was kidnapped and 1st legisl­ative assembly held

Domestic Crisis and Foriegn Crisis

factional disputes between Girondins and Montag­nards
Girond­ins­-wanted to keep the king alive while Mounta­gna­rds­-in­terests of Paris and strenght from radicals and populars in the city
execution of Louis XVI
Mountains won, destru­ction of old regime complete
counte­rre­vol­ution in the Vendee
In paris, by peasants who wanted the old regime but the Commune invaded the National Conven­tions and executued Girondions to leave the Mountains in control
Military Losses
French welcomed an infromal coalition of Europe but were losing and many countries poised to invade
Committee of Public Safety seeks to mobilize the people and curb counte­rev­olution
executive powers lead by Danton, same people reelected
Robesp­ierre is an important member
wanted to use power to benefit people in an abstract basis

More on the Radical Revolution

A Nation in Arms(levee en masse)
universal mobili­zation, used to push allies back adn conquer Nether­lands
Committee of Public Safety and Reign of Terror
Revolu­tionary courts organized to protect Republcis from internal enemies who did not support the revolution victims mostly royalists to revolu­tionary Girondins and victim # very high, military forced used to bring cities back into control such as Marsailes and Lyons, no class predjuice among victims, Rousseus's concept of free will with 12 men tasking upon themselves to ascertain the will of France and kill enemies
"­Rep­ublic of Virtue­"
Goal:c­ontrol France and create a new republican order explain war emergency measures and implement the law
Law of General Maximum
price control on necess­itys, failed to work since govt could not enforce it
The Role of Womens
made sure members and deputes knew their demands, women asked the national convention for bread and were rejected, society for revolu­tionary women-­com­posed mainly of working class women, women forbideen from Paris Commune because women's place was at home and raise furture poltical leaders
De-Chr­ist­ian­ization
part of the radical phase that aimed to create a secular socity, saint removed and chruches closed
New Calender
symbolized the opport­unity to create a new government and new order, date starts from when French Republic proclaimed
Temple of Reason
left over days represent revolu­tionary virtues, Norte-Dame cahnged to the Temple of Reason, dechri­sti­naz­ation backfired since France was mainly Catholic and ended up creating more enemies than friends
Equality and Slavery: in France and coloni­es(­T­ous­saint L' Overtu­re)
the society friends of black advoated against slavery and when national convention came into power, govern­ement abolished slavery in colonies, lead a revolit in Haiti and acheived indepe­ndence
Decline of the Committee of Public Safety
the law of 14 Frimaire allowed the Commitiee to centralize admini­str­ation and exercise greater control to check the Region of Terror. Then the Committe turned against radical parisans which alliented a group and then Antiro­bes­ipeere coalitlon killed Robesp­ierre

Reaction and the Directory

Thermi­dorian Reaction
Terror ended, National Convention stomped power of Committee, Jacobins gone, churchs open and freedom of worship, lassie­z-faire back, new consis­tuation reflects conser­vation republ­icanism
Consti­tution of 1795
national legisl­ative assembly made of two chambers, lower house was council of 500 initiated legisalive and upper house of counil of elders would accept or reject laws, member choosen by electors who has to own or rent a certain amount of property
Directory
Five director elected by the Council of Elders
Period of stagnation and reliance on the military for political power
national convention ruled 2/3 of new members of national assembly from there which caused distur­bances and inserr­uction lead by Napolean
Gracchus Babeuf and the Conspiracy of Equals
"what is the French Rev?", appalled at the misery of the commone people and wanted to abolish private property

The Rise of Napolean

Background and Education
went to military school where he spent time reading the classics
Napoleon's military carrer
Quickly rose through the ranks and saved the National Convention from the Parison mob to become Major General, defeated Austrians, parici­pated in a coup etat that lead to his dictat­orship
Napolean in control
Republic of France proclaimed
Consit­uation with a bicameral legisl­ative that reduced the role of electors
Napolean acts as First Consuel
controlled legisl­ative authrotiy and all ascpets of government
First Consul for Life
crowned Emperor Napoleon I, 1804
retuned france to monarchy and gave stabli­zation to the Regime

Domestic Polices of Emperor Napolean

Napolean and the Catholic Church
needed to reconile with Church to stablize regime and worked with Pope Pius VII to restablish the church and people , Condordatt gave state the most power with the ability to nominate bishops
A New Code of Laws
Code Napole­on(­Civil Code)
Preserves revolu­tionary gains
recognizes the principle of equality for all citizens and rights of all indivi­duals
protects property and indivi­duals
protects rights but also the empolyer
restores control of fathers over families
undid rights establ­ished during the Radical phase and women now less equal than men
The French Rureau­cracy
Centra­liz­ation
elimanted locally elected assemblies and lead to new officals
Prefects
officals who oversaw all ascepts of a local government and depended on government for jobs
tax collection
made sure people payed
merito­cracy
jobs based on merit
Napolean's growing despot­ism­-Ge­rmaine de Stael
new aristo­cracy who had protection according to property rights and conscr­iption, newspapers shut down and censoring, Germaine de Stael wrote how the government was trynical and she was banned but countinued to write

Naopol­ean's Empire and European Response

Peace of Amiens
Napolean wanted to end war to settle new govt, France got new land
Renewal of War
War renewed with same enemies but Napolean defeted them
By June 1807, Napoleon's Grand Army defeated the contin­ential members of teh coalition, giving him the opport­unity to create a new European order and Treaty of Tilist
ended fighting and gave Napolean the opport­unity for a new European order
Napolean's grand empire
composed of the French empire, dependent states, and allied states
allied states were those defeared by Napolean
Napolean demanded obiedence but allowed legal eqality, relgio­nious tolera­tions, and economic freedom
Englig­ntment ideas, needed a common front against British and ego but clergy and nobility lost a lot of privilages
The Problem of Great Britia­ns:­Battle of Trafalgar and Contin­ental System
Napolean could not defeath English sea power and Contin­ernetal system attempted to weaken British econom­ically but allied states helped Britiain and overseas markets
Nation­ali­sm(­fra­ner­nite) arises, espically in German states
formed during emphasis on brothe­rhood
The Fall of Napolean
lead to Louis XVIII in power
   
 

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