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The theoretical foundations of coaching Cheat Sheet by


Socrates: believed that every person has full knowledge, so through maieutics he helped reach that knowledge, answering through the person's own conclu­sions.
Plato: emphasized the importance of dialog as a method of self-k­now­ledge.
Aristotle: speaks of the passage of "­bei­ng" (first nature) to "must be".
Nietzsche: defined the will to power as a prism from which we see the world, which ends up being specific to each indivi­dual.
Gallwey: designed the inner game, taking care of the interf­erences that limit the personal potential, basically limiting defini­tions and beliefs about oneself and the reality that surrounds us.
Whitmore: promoter of coaching in Europe, took some of Gallwey's ideas and developed them to create a method of his own.
Goleman: defined emotional intell­igence as the ability to feel, unders­tand, control and modify your own mood and the mood of others.
Bandler: studied the behavioral patterns of humans to develop models and techniques that could explan the magic and illusion of behavior and human commun­ica­tion, and called it NLP.
Leonard: founder of the North-­Ame­rican coaching, focusing on increasing self-e­steem and challe­nging the customers to take action, to give the best of themse­lves.

Definition of coaching

Process of thoughtful and creative accomp­animent with customers that inspires them to maximize their personal and profes­sional potential.

It is a process of generative learning, which includes the person's transf­orm­ation in order to take him toward a more conscious, complete and satisf­actory life.

Coaching is a discipline that gives us the tools to be able to "­cre­ate­" our own self. The coach’s role is to be a companion who acts like a mirror, facili­tator, catalyst of the consci­ous­ness. In addition, Coaching also accomp­anies us to accept what we do not control, seeking a personal transf­orm­ation to become the best version of ourselves.

The origins of coaching

Classic Greece and Socrates: Socrates is recognized as the first philos­opher who oriented Greek philosophy towards the daily lives of his fellow citizens. ‘Living well’ and how to achieve it was the purpose of his thought (reached when a person knew oneself through reason, managing to reach the truth, understood as unique and unchan­ging). It was considered as imposs­ible.
The coach is the profes­sional who guides the process, metaph­ori­cally the "­veh­icl­e" that leads to a person or a group of people from a given origin to a desired destin­ation. Regarding Coaching, it is the process in which the coach and coachee intervene.

Coaching as a modern method­ology:

Gallwey developed the "­inner game" which develops within the mind of every indivi­dual, where the obstacles are internal, diffic­ulting the concen­tra­tion, and conseq­uently the result of the activity.
Whitmore took some Gallwey's and created a method of his own.

Influences from other discip­lines

Greek philos­ophy: the vision of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle led to the metaph­ysical paradigm, which considers the human being as immutable. Coaching is inspired by the Greek's purpose of self-k­now­ledge of the person, although Greek philosophy considered transf­orm­ations as imposs­ible.
The existe­nti­alist philos­ophy: implies that the individual is free and, therefore, fully respon­sible for his actions. Coaching interprets the man as respon­sible for his destiny, oriented to the what and how rather than trying to understand the reason for his essence.
Humanistic psycho­logy: considers that only the study of consci­ousness will help the unders­tanding of a human being endowed with free will. It focuses on the customer and it is coachee who, with the help of the coach identi­fies, builds and presents solutions to his needs. Coaching uses concepts such as consci­ous­ness, potential, freedom, self-r­eal­iza­tion, and will.
Systemic thinking: the properties of a system can´t be described in terms of its separate elements; their unders­tanding is presented when they are studied globally. This is a fundam­ental concept in Coaching when the search for the customer means working in his relati­onship with one or more people. Feedback is also an important concept.
Emotional intell­igence: ability to feel, unders­tand, control and modify your own mood and the mood of others. It is not a measure that is establ­ished since birth; it must be developed through life.
Neurol­ing­uistic progra­mming: study of the mental processes in order to obtain a formal and dynamic model of how the mind works and the human percep­tion. The NLP attempts to define direct patterns (or "­pro­gra­ms") about human behavior related to the language.
Biology of knowledge: self-g­ene­ration (cells viewed as machines, able to reproduce themse­lves) is the fundam­ental condition of life. The key element of the conscience is that all learning is possible thanks to its own ability to observe and to behave.
Leadership and manage­ment: the new leaders know that the best victory is the one in which everybody wins, so he/she ceases to be author­itarian and contro­lling and transforms into an inspiring and encour­aging agent regarding the potential of his people.
Neuros­cience: neurop­las­ticity demons­trates the ability of the brain to alter its own structure as a result of experience and learning. In Coaching, learning refers to this deep change process that transforms the person.
Eastern philos­ophy: the zen points out the path to the self-d­isc­overy.
Mindfu­lness: ability of the mind to be in the present moment. The coach, in the session, can use meditation and conscious breathing to encourage their customer to pay full attention to the present.

Purposes of coaching

The ultimate purpose is to encourage the customer’s learning, in line with his/her defined objectives and with what he/she intends to carry out.
Raising awareness with regards to the client's way of viewing the world.
Encour­aging a transf­orm­ation
Developing skills­/co­mpe­tences that will strengthen the client as a person, so that he/she achieves any objective.


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