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PTC - C14 (Applications of Animal Cell Cultures) Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Brief summary of Chapter 14 (Applications of Animal Cell Cultures) of Plant and Tissue Culture Subject

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

1. Model Systems

Cell cultures provide a good model system for studying:
-basic cell biology and bioche­mistry
-the intera­ctions between diseas­e-c­ausing agents and cells
-the effects of drugs on cells
-the process and triggers for aging
-nutri­tional studies

2. Toxicity Testing

-Cultured cells are widely used alone or in conjun­ction with animal tests to study the effects of new drugs, cosmetics and chemicals on survival and growth in a wide variety of cell types.

3. Cancer Research

-both normal cells and cancer cells can be grown in culture, the basic differ­ences between them can be closely studied
-it is possible, by the use of chemicals, viruses and radiation, to convert normal cultured cells to cancer causing cells
-mecha­nisms that cause the change can be studied
-cultured cancer cells also serve as a test system to determine suitable drugs and methods for select­ively destroying types of cancer

4. Virology

-repli­cation of viruses in cell cultures (in place of animals) for use in vaccine production
-used in the clinical detection and isolation of viruses, as well as basic research into how they grow and infect organisms

5. Cell-Based Manufa­cturing

-large­-scale production of cells that have been geneti­cally engineered to produce proteins that have medicinal or commercial value (e.g. monoclonal antibo­dies, insulin, hormones)
-use of cells as replac­ement tissues and organs
->A­rti­ficial skin for use in treating burns and ulcers is the first commer­cially available product.

6. Genetic Counseling

-Amnio­cen­tesis, a diagnostic technique that enables doctors to remove and culture fetal cells from pregnant women, has given doctors an important tool for the early diagnosis of fetal disorders.
-These cells can then be examined for abnorm­alities in their chromo­somes and genes using karyot­yping, chromosome painting and other molecular techni­ques.

7. Genetic Engine­ering

-The ability to transfect or reprogram cultured cells with new genetic material (DNA and genes) has provided a major tool to molecular biologists wishing to study the cellular effects of the expression of these genes (new proteins).
-These techniques can also be used to produce these new proteins in large quantity in cultured cells for further study.

8. Gene Therapy

-Cells can be removed from a patient lacking a functional gene and the missing or damaged gene can then be replaced.
-The cells can be grown for a while in culture and then replaced into the patient.
-An altern­ative approach is to place the missing gene into a viral vector and then ‘infect’ the patient with the virus in the hope that the missing gene will then be expressed in the patient’s cells.
1. Swapping harmful mutant alleles with functional ones by selective reverse mutation.
2. Deacti­vating improperly functi­oning mutated gene.
3. Inserting a new gene into the body to help battle a disease.
4. Interc­hanging non-fu­nct­ional gene with normal gene through homologous recomb­ina­tion.

Ex Vivo Gene Theraphy

In vivo and ex vivo Gene Therapy

9. Vaccine Production

-ability to grow large amounts of virus in cell culture eventually led to the creation of vaccines
-In early times, resear­chers had to use live animals to grow poliov­irus, but due to the develo­pment of cell culture technique they were able to achieve much greater control over virus production and on a much larger scale which eventually develop vaccines and various treatm­ents.

Vaccine Production

10. Immuno­logical Studies

-Cell culture techniques are used to know the working of various immune cells, cytokines, lymphoid cells, and intera­ction between disease causing agent and host cell.

11. Medicine Production

Several medically important protein pharma­ceu­ticals have been produced using animal cell culture and recomb­inant DNA techno­logy.


Check Lecture Notes Chapter 14 for the protein details.