Show Menu
Cheatography

Footnote & Bibliography Referencing Cheat Sheet by

A guide to footnoting and creating a bibliography for your footnotes

Footnoting & Biblio­graphic Refere­ncing System

Two elements:
• footnotes throughout your assignment
• biblio­graphy or list of references at the end.
Footnotes are a note or reference to a source of inform­ation which appears at the foot (bottom) of a page. In a footnote refere­ncing system, you indicate a reference by putting a small number above the line of type directly following the source material. This number is called a note identi­fier. It sits slightly above the line of text.
It looks like this. 1
Putting the same number, followed by a citation of your source, at the bottom of the page. Footnoting should be numerical and chrono­log­ical: the first reference is 1, the second is 2, and so on.

Citing Different Sources

Book
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• author's surname(s) and initial(s)
• title of book (under­lined or italic­ised)
• publisher
• place of public­ation
• year of public­ation
• page number(s).
Example:
1 M. Henninger, Don't Just Surf: Effective Research Strategies for the Net, UNSW Press, Sydney, 1997, p. 91.
Article/ Chapter in a Book Collec­tion
include inform­ation in the following order:
• author's surname(s) and initial(s)
• title of article (between single quotation marks)
• title of book (under­lined or italic­ised)
• editor(s) name
• publisher
• place of public­ation
• year of public­ation
• page number(s).
Example:
2 M. Blaxter, 'Social class and health inequa­lit­ies', in Equalities and Inequa­lities in Health, C. Carter & J. Peel (eds), Academic Press, London, 1976, pp. 6-7.
Journal article
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• author's surname(s) and initial(s)
• title of article (between single quotation marks)
• title of journal or periodical (under­lined or italic­ised)
• volume number
• issue number
• month of public­ation (if applic­able)
• year of public­ation
• page number(s).
Example:
3 M. Doyle, 'Captain Mbaye Diagne'. Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.
A website
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• author­/editor
• page title
• website title
• name of sponsor of site (if available)
• last date site updated
• date of viewing
• URL.
Example:
4 N Curthoys, 'Future directions for rhetoric – invention and ethos in public critique', in Australian Humanities Review. March-­April 2001, viewed on 11 April 2001, http:/­/ww­w.l­ib.l­at­rob­e.e­du.a­u/­AHR­/ar­chi­ve/­Iss­ue-­April- 2001/c­urt­hoy­s.html
Films, DVDs, and television and radio programs
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• title
• format
• publisher
• place of recording
• date.
Example:
5 Strictly Ballroom, DVD, 20th Century Fox, Australia, 1992.
6 The Nest, television program, SBS Televi­sion, Sydney, 15 January 2010.
Emails and personal commun­ica­tions
If the details of personal commun­ica­tions are to be provided in footnotes rather than in the text itself:
• provide the person's first initial and last name
• indicate the type of commun­ication
• include the full date.
Example:
7 P. Gregory, interview with the author, 5 July 2011.
8 C. Barker, email, 12 January 2012.
 

Second and subsequent footnotes

Second and subsequent references to the same source don’t need to be as detailed as the first note.
With a single author:
Provide all the necessary inform­ation in the first footnote. If you want to refer to the same source again, give the author’s name, the year of public­ation and the page number.
1 K Reid, Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Univer­sities, CQU Press, Rockha­mpton, 1996, p. 87.
2 Other Footnote
3 Reid, p. 98.
If two or more works by the same author are referred to in the text, include the title:
1 E Gaskell, North and South, Penguin, Harmon­dsw­orth, 1970, p. 228.
2 E Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë, Penguin, Harmon­dsw­orth, 1975, p. 53.
3 Gaskell, North and South, p. 222.
Subsequent references to articles are done in a similar way:
17 M Doyle, ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’, Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.
18 Other Footnote
19 Doyle, Granta, p. 101.

Biblio­graphy

Even though full biblio­graphic inform­ation is given in the footnote refere­nces, you are still required to provide a separate list of the works you have cited.
A biblio­graphic entry requires the same inform­ation as a footnote entry, but with two main differ­ences:
• The author’s surname is placed before their initial, as sources are listed in alphab­etical order by author surname.
• Certain elements are separated with full stops instead of commas.
Examp­les:
Book
Reid, I Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Univer­sities. CQU Press, Rockha­mpton, 1996.
Journal article
Doyle, M ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’. Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.
Web page
Curthoys, N, 'Future directions for rhetoric – invention and ethos in public critique', in Australian Humanities Review, March-­April 2001, viewed on 11 April 2001, http:/­/ww­w.l­ib.l­at­rob­e.e­du.a­u/­AHR­/ar­chi­ve/­Iss­ue-­Apr­il-­200­1/c­urt­hoy­s.html
 

Abbrev­iations for subsequent footnotes

Another way to shorten second or subsequent references is with Latin abbrev­iat­ions. For example:
ibid = same as last entry. Use ibid when two references in a row are from the same source.
op. cit.= as previously cited. Use op. cit. when you have already given full details of that source in an earlier note. When using op. cit., you still need to provide inform­ation such as the author’s name to make the source clear. These abbrev­iations should be in lowercase, even when they appear at the beginning of a note.
Example:
11 K Reid, Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Univer­sities, CQU Press, Rockha­mpton, 1996, p. 87.
12 ibid., p. 26.
13 M Doyle, ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’, Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, p. 99.
14 Reid, op. cit., p. 147.

Help Us Go Positive!

We offset our carbon usage with Ecologi. Click the link below to help us!

We offset our carbon footprint via Ecologi
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.