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Footnote & Bibliography Referencing Cheat Sheet by

A guide to footnoting and creating a bibliography for your footnotes

Footnoting & Biblio­graphic Refere­ncing System

Two elements:
• footnotes throughout your assignment
• biblio­graphy or list of references at the end.
Footnotes are a note or reference to a source of inform­ation which appears at the foot (bottom) of a page. In a footnote refere­ncing system, you indicate a reference by putting a small number above the line of type directly following the source material. This number is called a note identi­fier. It sits slightly above the line of text.
It looks like this. 1
Putting the same number, followed by a citation of your source, at the bottom of the page. Footnoting should be numerical and chrono­log­ical: the first reference is 1, the second is 2, and so on.

Citing Different Sources

Book
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• author's surname(s) and initial(s)
• title of book (under­lined or italic­ised)
• publisher
• place of public­ation
• year of public­ation
• page number(s).
Example:
1 M. Henninger, Don't Just Surf: Effective Research Strategies for the Net, UNSW Press, Sydney, 1997, p. 91.
Article/ Chapter in a Book Collec­tion
include inform­ation in the following order:
• author's surname(s) and initial(s)
• title of article (between single quotation marks)
• title of book (under­lined or italic­ised)
• editor(s) name
• publisher
• place of public­ation
• year of public­ation
• page number(s).
Example:
2 M. Blaxter, 'Social class and health inequa­lit­ies', in Equalities and Inequa­lities in Health, C. Carter & J. Peel (eds), Academic Press, London, 1976, pp. 6-7.
Journal article
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• author's surname(s) and initial(s)
• title of article (between single quotation marks)
• title of journal or periodical (under­lined or italic­ised)
• volume number
• issue number
• month of public­ation (if applic­able)
• year of public­ation
• page number(s).
Example:
3 M. Doyle, 'Captain Mbaye Diagne'. Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.
A website
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• author­/editor
• page title
• website title
• name of sponsor of site (if available)
• last date site updated
• date of viewing
• URL.
Example:
4 N Curthoys, 'Future directions for rhetoric – invention and ethos in public critique', in Australian Humanities Review. March-­April 2001, viewed on 11 April 2001, http:/­/ww­w.l­ib.l­at­rob­e.e­du.a­u/­AHR­/ar­chi­ve/­Iss­ue-­April- 2001/c­urt­hoy­s.html
Films, DVDs, and television and radio programs
Include inform­ation in the following order:
• title
• format
• publisher
• place of recording
• date.
Example:
5 Strictly Ballroom, DVD, 20th Century Fox, Australia, 1992.
6 The Nest, television program, SBS Televi­sion, Sydney, 15 January 2010.
Emails and personal commun­ica­tions
If the details of personal commun­ica­tions are to be provided in footnotes rather than in the text itself:
• provide the person's first initial and last name
• indicate the type of commun­ication
• include the full date.
Example:
7 P. Gregory, interview with the author, 5 July 2011.
8 C. Barker, email, 12 January 2012.
 

Second and subsequent footnotes

Second and subsequent references to the same source don’t need to be as detailed as the first note.
With a single author:
Provide all the necessary inform­ation in the first footnote. If you want to refer to the same source again, give the author’s name, the year of public­ation and the page number.
1 K Reid, Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Univer­sities, CQU Press, Rockha­mpton, 1996, p. 87.
2 Other Footnote
3 Reid, p. 98.
If two or more works by the same author are referred to in the text, include the title:
1 E Gaskell, North and South, Penguin, Harmon­dsw­orth, 1970, p. 228.
2 E Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë, Penguin, Harmon­dsw­orth, 1975, p. 53.
3 Gaskell, North and South, p. 222.
Subsequent references to articles are done in a similar way:
17 M Doyle, ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’, Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.
18 Other Footnote
19 Doyle, Granta, p. 101.

Biblio­graphy

Even though full biblio­graphic inform­ation is given in the footnote refere­nces, you are still required to provide a separate list of the works you have cited.
A biblio­graphic entry requires the same inform­ation as a footnote entry, but with two main differ­ences:
• The author’s surname is placed before their initial, as sources are listed in alphab­etical order by author surname.
• Certain elements are separated with full stops instead of commas.
Examp­les:
Book
Reid, I Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Univer­sities. CQU Press, Rockha­mpton, 1996.
Journal article
Doyle, M ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’. Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.
Web page
Curthoys, N, 'Future directions for rhetoric – invention and ethos in public critique', in Australian Humanities Review, March-­April 2001, viewed on 11 April 2001, http:/­/ww­w.l­ib.l­at­rob­e.e­du.a­u/­AHR­/ar­chi­ve/­Iss­ue-­Apr­il-­200­1/c­urt­hoy­s.html
 

Abbrev­iations for subsequent footnotes

Another way to shorten second or subsequent references is with Latin abbrev­iat­ions. For example:
ibid = same as last entry. Use ibid when two references in a row are from the same source.
op. cit.= as previously cited. Use op. cit. when you have already given full details of that source in an earlier note. When using op. cit., you still need to provide inform­ation such as the author’s name to make the source clear. These abbrev­iations should be in lowercase, even when they appear at the beginning of a note.
Example:
11 K Reid, Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Univer­sities, CQU Press, Rockha­mpton, 1996, p. 87.
12 ibid., p. 26.
13 M Doyle, ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’, Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, p. 99.
14 Reid, op. cit., p. 147.

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