**Variable Assignment**
`a <- 'bonjour' `

:

*string*
`a <- 6`

:

*integer*
**Loop**
For loop :

`for (variable in sequence){ Do something }`

While loop :

`while (condition){ Do something }`

**Condition**
`if (condition){ Do something } else { Do something different }`

`a == b`

: Are equal

`a > b`

: Greater than

`a >= b`

: Greater than or equal to

`is.na(a)`

: Is missing

`a != b`

: Not equal

`a < b`

: Less than

`a <= b`

: Less than or equal to

`is.null(a)`

: Is null

**Functions**
` function_name <- function (var){ Do something return (new_variable) }`

**Maths Functions**
`log(x) `

: Natural log /

`sum(x)`

: Sum

`exp(x) `

: Exponential /

`mean(x) `

: Mean

`max(x)`

: Largest element /

`median(x)`

: Median

`min(x)`

: Smallest element /

` quantile(x)`

: Percentage quantiles

`round(x, n)`

: Round to n decimal places

`rank(x)`

: Rank of elements

`signif(x, n)`

: Round to n significant figures

`var(x)`

: The variance /

`cor(x, y)`

: Correlation

`sd(x)`

: The standard deviation

**Lists**
`l <- list(x = 1:5, y = c('a', 'b'))`

: A list is collection of elements which can be of diﬀerent types.

`l[[2]]`

: second element of l

`l[1]`

: new list with only the first element

`l$x`

: element named x

`l['y']`

: new list with only element named y

**String**
`paste(x, y, sep = ' ')`

: Join multiple vectors together.

`paste(x, collapse = ' ')`

: Join elements of a vector together.

`grep(pattern, x)`

: Find regular expression matches in x.

`gsub(pattern, replace, x)`

: Replace matches in x with a string.

`toupper(x)`

: Convert to uppercase.

`tolower(x)`

: Convert to lowercase.

`nchar(x)`

: Number of characters in a string.

**Matrixes**
`m <- matrix(x, nrow = 3, ncol = 3)`

: Create a matrix from x.

`df[ , 2]`

: Select a column .

`df[2, ]`

: Select a row.

`df[2, 2]`

: Select an element.

**Data Frames**
`df <- data.frame(x = 1:3, y = c('a', 'b', 'c'))`

: A special case of a list where all elements are the same length.

`View(df)`

: See the full data frame.

`head(df)`

:See the first 6 rows.

`nrow(df)`

: Number of rows.

`ncol(df)`

: Number of columns.

`dim(df)`

: Number of columns and rows.

As the same sub settings as matrixes and lists

**Ploting**
`plot(x)`

: plot values of x in order

`plot(x, y)`

: plot values of x against y

**Reading and writing data**
`df <- read.table('file.txt')`

/

`df <- read.csv('file.csv') `

/ Read a file text or a csv

`write.table(df, ‘file.txt’)`

/

`write.csv(df, ‘file.csv’)`

/ Write a file text or a csv

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