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Tahsili Physics (Waves and Sound) Cheat Sheet by

2024 Tahsili Physics: Waves and Sound

Periodic Motion

Periodic Motion
motion in which the restoring force is directly propor­tional to the displa­cement (springs and pendulum)
Hook's Law
states that the force required to compress a spring by a distance is proprt­ional to the distance
Hook's Law Equation
F = -kd (k is the spring constant)
PE of a spring
PE = 1/2 x k x d2
applic­ation of a simple pendulum
to determine the gravit­ational accele­ration
Periodic Time
T = 2(pi)√­(L/g)

Mechanical Waves

Transv­ersal Waves
waves that oscillate perpen­dic­ularly to their direction of motion
Longit­udinal Waves
waves that oscillate in the same direction as their motion
Surface Waves
waves that move perpen­dic­ularly and parallel to the direction of motion
One dimesional wave
ex: Rope
Two dimens­ional Wave
ex: water waves
Three dimens­ional waves
ex: sound and EM waves

Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect
the change in frequency produced by a moving source with respect to an observer
Doppler Effect Formula
fo = fs(v±vo / v±vs)
vo is positive if the observer moves towards the source
vs is positive if the source moves away from the observer


Mechanical Wave
a wave that requires a medium to translate in
Electr­oma­gnetic Wave
a wave that does not require a medium
the maximum displa­cement from the equili­brium position
Periodic Time
the time needed to complete one full cycle
the number of cycles completed in one second
Frequency Formula
f = 1/T
Wavelength (λ)
The distance between two crests or troughs
Wavelength Formula
λ = v / f (v is the wave speed )
The energy carried by a wave is directly propor­tional to the amplitude squared

Standing Waves

standing waves
a combin­ation of two waves moving in opposite direct­ions, while having the same amplitude and frequency
positions on a standing wave where the wave stays in a fixed position due to the destru­ctive interf­erence
positions on a standing wave with the highest amplitude
the number of nodes are always greater than the number of antinodes

Sound Waves

Sound wave
a longit­udinal wave composed of compre­ssions and rarefa­ctions, and whose speed is directly propor­tional to temper­ature
depends on amplitude
depends on frequency
Sound Intensity
the relative sound intensity compared to a specific standard intensity expressed in decibels
humans can hear noises between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz

Standing Waves in Air Columns

Formula for two open ends (antinodes are greater)
λ = 2L / n (n is the harmonic level)
Formula for a closed column (nodes = antinodes)
λ = 4L / n (n is the harmonic level)


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