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Tahsili Chemistry (Mixtures and Solutions) Cheat Sheet by

2024 Tahsili Chemistry: Mixtures and Solutions


a homoge­neous mixture of substances
a homoge­neous mixture of metals with metals, or metals with nonmetals
Solution Concen­tration
the amount of solute in a specific amount of solvent
Solution Concen­tration formulas
M of solute / M of solution or V of solute / V of solution
mol of solute / L of solution
Dilution formula
M1V1 = M2V2
mol of solute / Kg of solvent


two or more substances are mixed together and keep their properties
types of mixtures
homoge­neous (smooth, indist­ing­uis­hable) and hetero­geneous (mixed)
types of hetero­geneous mixtures
suspen­sions and colloids
separation of mixtures
distil­lation (homog­eneous) - filtration (heter­oge­neous) - crysti­lli­zation - chroma­tog­raphy - sublim­ation
Brownian Motion
the random motion of particles suspended in fluids (prevents precip­ita­tion)
Tyndall Effect
the scattering of light by a medium containing small suspended particles


the process in which solute molecules are surrounded by solvent particles
Heat of Dissolving
the change in energy due to solution formation
Factors affecting the rate of dissolving
increase in temp - stirring - increase of solute surface area (powde­ring)
solubility of a gas in a liquid increases when temp decreases
Henry's Law
S1P2 = S2P1 (S = solubility , P = pressure)
Collig­ative Properties of solution (depend on solute to solution ratio)
vapor pressure lowering - osmotic pressure - boiling point elevation - freezing point depression
vapor pressure lowering
the pressure of a vapor decreases with an increase in the no. of moles
boiling point elevation
ΔT = k(b) x m (ΔT = b.p elevation, k(b) = elevation constant, m = molality
a liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals atmosp­heric pressure. K(b) changes with the solvent
freezing point depression
ΔT = k(f) x m (ΔT = f.p depres­sion, k(f) = depression constant, m = molality
osmotic pressure
the additional pressure caused by the movement of water to areas of Conc. Solution
the movement of solvent through semipe­rmeable memebranes to areas of lower concen­tration


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