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A and P Unit 1 Lecture Cheat Sheet by

Anatomy and Physiology Unit 1 Lecture

PTH and Calcium

Musco skeletal system

the muscular and skeletal systems work together to support and move the body. The bones of the skeletal system serve to protect the body's organs, support the weight of the body, and give the body shape. The muscles of the muscular system attach to these bones, pulling on them to allow for movement of the body.

epiphyseal plate

Connective Tissue Proper

compact bone

makes up 80% of bone in body, Under the Perios­teum: It lies just beneath the perios­teum, the outer membrane covering bones. In the Diaphyses of Long Bones: The diaphysis refers to the shaft of long bones, where compact bone provides support and protection
Strength and Rigidity


Sagittal plane
a vertical plane which passes through the body longit­udi­nally. It divides the body into a left section and a right section
median sagittal plane
passes down the midline of the body, separating it into equal halves
Coronal plane
a vertical plane which also passes through the body longit­udi­nally – but perpen­dicular (at a right angle) to the sagittal plane It divides the body into a front (anterior) section and back (poste­rior) section
Transverse planes
a horizontal plane. It is perpen­dicular to both the sagittal and coronal planes, and parallel to the ground. It divides the body into an upper (superior) section and a lower (inferior) section. Transverse planes are also known as transaxial planes or axial planes.
towards the midline
away from the midline
to the front
to the back
Closer to origin (of limb)
further away (of limb) from origin

The integu­mentary system and other systems

Immune system
it’s the first line of defense against bacteria and infection. It also sends white blood cells to injuries to begin the healing process.
Endocrine system
helps you absorb vitamin D, which acts as a hormone and is crucial to your bone health because it affects calcium absorp­tion.
Respir­atory system
nose hairs filter out dust and other particles before you inhale them into your lungs

Function of skeletal system

Blood cell format­ion-Red blood marrow is the site of blood cell formation
Mineral storage- calcium, phosph­orus, and magnesium salts
Fat storag­e-y­ellow bone marrow
Moveme­nt-­provide movement from the muscles attached to the bones
Supports the weight of the body


A disease that causes bones to become weak and brittle.
More prevalent in females, older and slender, thin boned people, if someone in your family had it, a diet low in calcium and vitamin diet low in calcium and vitamin D, Long-term use of certain medica­tions, Not getting enough exercise and being inactive for long periods of time, Long-term heavy drinking of alcohol, Smoking
To prevent osteop­oro­sis­-intake the recomm­ended amount of calcium, exercise regularly, add more lean protein to diet, get enough vitamin D, Limit your alcohol consum­ption, Maintain a healthy weight, If you smoke, quit,

Intram­emb­ranous Ossifi­cation Process


Intram­emb­ranous ossifi­cation
built on a model (starting material) made of a membrane of embryonic connective tissue
endoch­ondral ossifi­cation
built on a model of hyaline cartilage

Yellow bone marrow

Yellow bone marrow is located in the cavities of long bones.
It stores fat (adipo­cytes) and contains mesenc­hymal stem cells. Yellow bone marrow can convert to red marrow if needed

What and functions

Simple epithelial tissue

Stratified Epithelial Tissue

Exocrine glands

Endocrine vs Exocrine Glands

Endocrine Glands
secrete hormones; ductless; secrete hormones directly into the bloods­tream
Exocrine Glands
secrete substances like enzymes, digestive juices, sweat, saliva, etc.; contain ducts; release substances through ducts onto surfaces or into cavities

Spongy bone

usually located at the ends of the long bones (the epiphy­ses), with the harder compact bone surrou­nding it. It is also found inside the vertebrae, in the ribs, in the skull and in the bones of the joints
deal for making and storing bone marrow within the lattic­e-like trabeculae network, Spongy bone contains red bone marrow that is used in erythr­opo­iesis.
contains osteocytes housed in lacunae, but they are not arranged in concentric circles. Instead, the lacunae and osteocytes are found in a lattic­e-like network of matrix spikes called trabeculae

Joint classi­fic­ation

Joints, bones, and movement

Your joints, connective tissue and muscles all work together to push and pull parts of your body every time you move
Depending on how much a joint moves, it fits into one of three catego­rie­s-S­yna­rth­roses, Amphia­rth­roses, Diarth­roses

Specia­lized Connective Tissue


Muscle tissue

Bones classi­fic­ations

Red bone marrow

consists of loose connective tissue that supports islands of blood-­forming hemato­poietic cells,
Amount of red marrow decreases as a person ages

Nervous tissue

Tissue repair

Replacing cells, Epithelium tissue, most connective tissue, smooth muscle tissue
Divide by mitosis, collagen that fills in gap and tissue loses some level of functional ability, End result of fibrosis is develo­pment of scar tissue composed of dense irregular connective tissue, cartilage (conne­ctive tissue), skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue, nervous tissue

Sensory receptors

Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles
found embedded within reticular layer; sensory receptors that respond mainly to changes in pressure and vibration associated with skin
Tactile (Meissner) corpuscles
also found in dermal papillae; sensory receptors that respond to light touch stimuli; more numerous in regions of body where sensation is a primary function; skin of finger­tips, lips, face, and external genitalia

Bone terms

Articular cartilage
specia­lized connective tissue present in synovial joints that does not ossify, and persists through life, to provide an optimal surface for enabling movement in the joint. More specif­ically, it prevents friction between the bones and facili­tates the transm­ission of loads to the underlying bone.
Fibrous sheath that covers bones, Supplying blood and nouris­hment to the bone, Giving the bone and the surrou­nding area sensation, Protecting the bone from damage, Growing and repairing the bone when needed
Medullary cavity
The medullary cavity (medulla, innermost part) is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored; hence, the medullary cavity is also known as the marrow cavity
The endosteum (pl.: endostea) is a thin vascular membrane of connective tissue that lines the inner surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity of long bones.[­1][2] This endosteal surface is usually resorbed during long periods of malnut­rition, resulting in less cortical thickness


break down and reabsorb bone
bone-f­orming cells
mature bone cells

3 layers

Structure: superf­icial layer that consists of kerati­nized stratified squamous epithelium resting on a basement membrane Function: It protects your body from harm, keeps your body hydrated, produces new skin cells and contains melanin, which determines the color of your skin.
Structure: deep to epidermis and basement membrane; consists of loose connective tissue and dense irregular connective tissue Function: to cushion the body from stress and strain, and to also provide: elasticity to the skin, a sense of touch, and heat.
Epidermal deriva­tives


How does the skin regulate the body's temper­ature?
sweat glands, accessory structures to the skin, secrete water, salt, and other substances to cool the body when it becomes warm,


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