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Unit 4 Chemistry Test Cheat Sheet by

Polar vs Non-Polar

made with two or more non-metals
no electrical poles
one end has a positive charge, the other has a negative.
electrons divided more equally
has electrical poles
charges cancel out
soluble in water
not soluble in water, but maybe like oil

Ionic vs Covalent

electrons not shared equally
electrons shared equally
high melting point
low melting point
between one metal and one non-metal
between two non-metals

Interm­ole­cular Force

London Dispersion
weakest interm­ole­cular force.t­em­porary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.
occurs between two polar molecules. slightly stronger than london disper­sion. slightly positive attracts to slightly negative end. a good example is hydroc­hloride (HCl)
attraction between an ion and a neutral molecule that has a dipole. most commonly found in soluti­ons.ion with non-polar molecu­le.w­eaker than covalent or ionic bonds. polar water and sodium ion.

Non-Polar? Or Polar?

Looking at Lewis Structure
if bonds are symetr­ical, it is non-polar. if it is asymme­trical it is polar.

Solubility Rules

Always Soluble
silver salts
Acetates (C2,H3­,O2-)
P>Pb2 (lead)
hydroxide salts (slightly)
Group 1 (Li+, Na+, etc)
M>M­ercury (Hg2)
hydroxide salts of transition metals
S>S­ilver (Ag)
sulfides of transition metals
Ammonium (NH4+)
Group 17 (F-,Cl­-,Br-)
phosphates and fluorides

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