Show Menu
Cheatography

Solubility and Qualitative Tests Cheat Sheet by

Cheatsheet for basic solubility rules and qualitative tests

Reactivity Series

Potassium
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Carbon
Zinc
Iron
Lead
Hydrogen
Copper
Silver
Gold

Addition of Sodium Hydroxide

Cation
A few drops
In excess
Al3+
White ppt
Ppt dissolves to give colourless soln
Ca2+
White ppt
Ppt is insoluble
Cu2+
Light blue ppt
Ppt is insoluble
Fe2+
Green ppt
Ppt is insoluble
Fe3+
Reddis­h-brown ppt
Ppt is insoluble
Pb2+
White ppt
Ppt dissolves to give colourless soln
Zn2+
White ppt
Ppt dissolves to give colourless soln
NH4+
No ppt
Ammonia gas evolved upon heating

Addition of Aqueous Ammonia

Cation
A few drops
In excess
*Al3+
White ppt
Ppt is insoluble
Ca2+
No ppt
-
Cu2+
Light blue ppt
Ppt dissolves to give dark blue soln
Fe2+
Green ppt
Ppt is insoluble
Fe3+
Reddis­h-brown ppt
Ppt is insoluble
*Pb2+
White ppt
Ppt is insoluble
Zn2+
White ppt
Ppt dissolves to give colourless soln
*Al3+ and Pb2+ can be identified by using aqueous potassium iodide (KI) which forms yellow ppt in the presence of lead.
 

Amphoteric Metal Oxides

Zinc (Zn)
Aluminum (Al)
Lead (Pb)
Mnemonic is ZAP

Acidic Oxides

Sulfur Trioxide
SO3
Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4
*Sulfur Dioxide
SO2
Sulphurous Acid
H2SO3
Nitrogen Dioxide
NO2
Nitric Acid
HNO3
*Dinit­rogen Pentoxide
N2O5
Nitric Acid
HNO3
Carbon Dioxide
CO2
Carbonic Acid
HCO3
*Phosp­horus (V) Oxide
P4O10
Phosphoric Acid
H3PO4
*Phosp­horus (III) Oxide
P4O6
Phosph­orous Acid
H3PO3
*Manganese Heptoxide
Mn2O7
Perman­ganic Acid
HMnO4
*Dichl­orine Monoxide
Cl2O
Hypoch­lorous Acid
HOCl
*Dichl­orine Heptoxide
Cl2O5
Perchloric Acid
HClO4
*Advanced (NIS)

Basic Oxides

All Group I and II metals (except Beryllium)
Li2O, Na2O, MgO, CaO, etc.
*Thallium (I) Oxide
Tl2O
*Bismuth (III) Oxide
Bi2O3
*Advanced (NIS)
 

Always Soluble

Sodium
Na+
Potassium
K+
Ammonia
NH4+
Nitrate
NO3-
Mnemonic: SPAN

Soluble Salts

All halides
Except Pb and Ag compounds (e.g. PbCl2)
All sulphates
Except Ba, Ca (sparingly soluble) and Pb (e.g. BaSO4)

Insoluble Salts

All Carbonates
Except SPA (Sodium, Potassium, Ammonium)
All Phosphates
Group I Metals and Ammonium compoundC
All Hydroxides
Except SPCM (Sodium, Potassium, Calcium - sparingly soluble, Magnesium - very sparingly soluble)
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          More Cheat Sheets by peaceknight05