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class 9, cbse, civics, electoral politics cheat sheet


to choose repres­ent­atives.
to find out if people like their repres­ent­atives.
1. who will make laws for them
to make repres­ent­atives rule as per wishes of the people
2. party whose policies will guide the government and law making.
3. who will form the government and take major decisions.
people cant sit together everyday, take decisions and have the time and knowledge for all matters.
people can choose their repres­ent­atives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to do so, this is called an election.


In a democratic election, the list of those who are eligible to vote and who are not is prepared much before the election and given to everyone. This list if officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as the voter's list.
All citizens aged 18years and above can vote in an election. Every citizen has the right to vote, regardless of his or her caste, religion or gender. Some criminals with unsound mind can be denied the right to vote in rare situat­ions.
EPIC(e­lec­tion, photo identity card) are cards issued by the government to everyone on the voters list so that on one can vote for them.


Free and open discussion about who is a better repres­ent­ative, which party will make a better government or what is a good policy is discussed during an election campaign.
campaigns are held for 2 week long periods between the announ­cement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling.
During this period the candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilise their suppor­ters. This is also a period when TV and newspapers are full of election related stories and debates.
During campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues.
~ cannot bribe or threaten voters.
~ cannot appeal to them in the name of caste or religion.
~ use government resources for election campaign.
~ spend more than 25 lakh in a consti­tuency for lok sabha elections or 10 lakh in an assembly election.
~ cannot use any place of worship for election propag­anda.
~ use government vehicles, aircrafts and officials for elections.
~ once elections are announced ministers cannot lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decision or make any promises of providing public facili­ties.


~ free and fair
~ one vote one value
~ real choice of parties
~ regular intervals
~ candidates can contest elections
~ candidate preferred by people should get elected.


1. If they fail to keep their promis­es/­satisfy voters, they will lose votes.
1. disunity, factio­nalism.
2. compet­ition allows leaders to get rewarded.
2. to beat other parties, some parties use dirty tricks such as bribery.
3. political comp. motivates parties to do better and keep eachother in check.
3. compet­ition could hinder­/stall long term policies by pressure.
4. regular electoral election allows parties to bring out issues that people want to be brought out so their popularity and chances of victory increases.
4. good people do not bring dragged into unhealthy compet­ition.
at the consti­tuency level, compet­ition takes the form of compet­itions between several candid­ates.


There are no restri­ctions on anyone to contest an election.
Anyone who can be a voter can become a candidate in elections.
Minimum age to be a candidate is 25yrs.
There are restri­ctions on criminals but those apply in very extreme cases.
Parties nominate their candidates who get the party symbol and support. Parties nomination is often called party ticket.
Every person who wishes to contest elections has to fill a nomination form and give some money as a security deposit.
Every candidate has to make legal declar­ation and give full details of criminal cases, details of assets and liabil­ities, educat­ional qualif­ica­tions of the candidate.


The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote. That day is usually called the election day.
Once the voter goes inside the booth, the election officials identify her, put a mark on her finger and allow her to cast her vote. An agent of each candidate is allowed to sit inside the polling booth and ensure that the voting takes place in a fair way.
Nowadays electronic voting machines (EVM) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols.
All that the voter has to do is to press the button against the name of the candidate she wants to give her vote.
Once the polling is over, all the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place. On a fixed date, all the EVMs from a consti­tuency are opened and the votes secured by each candidate are counted.
The agents of all candidates are present there to ensure that the counting is done properly.
The candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a consti­tuency is declared elected.


Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections are held regularly after every five years.
elections are held in all the consti­tue­ncies at the same time, either within a few days or on the same day. This is called a general election.
Sometimes election is held for only one consti­tuency because of a vacancy, caused by death or resign­ation of a member. This is called a by-ele­ction.
In our country we follow an area based system of repres­ent­ation.
the country is divided into different areas for purposes of elections.
These areas of are electoral consti­tue­ncies.
The repres­ent­ative elected from each consti­tuency is called a member of parliament or MP.
Each consti­tuency has equally rough amount of population because every vote has one value.
Each state is divided into a specific number of assembly consti­tue­ncies and the elected repres­ent­ative from these is called a member of legisl­ative assembly or an MLA.
Each village or town is divided into several ward that are like consti­tue­ncies.


Certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected in the Lok Sabha or the state legisl­ative assemblies because they may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against those who are influe­ntial, powerful and resour­ceful.
If that happens then the parliament will lose a voice of a signif­icant section of our population because india is very diverse.
Therefore the consti­tution thought of a special system of reserved consti­tue­ncies for the weaker sections.
Some consti­tue­ncies are reserved for scheduled castes(84 seats in lok sabha) and scheduled tribes(47 seats in lok sabha).
In many states, seats in rural and urban local bodies are now reserved for other backward classe­s(OBC).
1/3rd of seats are reserved in rural and urban local bodies for woman candid­ates.

What makes indian elections democr­atic?

indepe­ndent election commis­sion:
1. Declar­ation of poll results
2. Location of the polling and counting stations
3. Security arrang­­ements in and around of polling stations
4. Implem­­enting and overseeing Model Code of Conduct
5. Mainte­­­nance and security of EVMs
6. Recognises the national, state and regional status of political parties


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