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CANADIAN ART IN THE 20’s

Artists: Franklin Carmichael Lawren Harris Alexander Young Jackson Frank Johnston Arthur Lismer James Edward Hervey MacDonald Frederick Varley
Who were they? They were a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933. They focused their art based on using waterc­olours, oil paints, charcoal and other mediums, softer colours and showed more definition in his work.
How they became: They were initially drawn together by a common sense of frustr­ation with the conser­vative quality of most Canadian art up to that point. Most were teachers of art so they became familiar with each other through the media
Contri­bution to Canadian Art History: Through painting, the Group of Seven were able to show how beautiful Canada truly is. They taught people that Canada is a worthy country not to be judged but to be loved.
How They Were Unique: Painted art that was not based on European tradition. Found true beauty and richness in a land that went a little unnoticed.
KEY TERMS: LAND ART - Land art or earth art is art that is made directly in the landscape, sculpting the land itself into earthw­orks. CONCEPTUAL ART - Conceptual art is art for which the idea (or concept) behind the work is more important than the finished art LANDSCAPE - Landscape is one of the principal types or genres of subject in Western art.

Indigenous Peoples

Assimi­late- An attempt to integrate members of a minority group into a larger, dominant culture by denying or erasing the culture and traditions of the minority group.
Department of Indian Affairs- the department of the government of Canada with respon­sib­ility for policies relating to Aboriginal peoples in Canada, that comprise the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis.
Enfran­chised- Given rights of citize­nship including the right to vote in an election.
Indian Act- A Canadian act of Parliament that concerns registered Indians, their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
League of Indians of Canada- Formed by Frederick Ogilvie Loft In 1919. The League of Indians of Canada was the first national Aboriginal political organi­zation in Canada. Its main goals were to protect the rights and to improve the living conditions of First Nations people in Canada.
Potlatch- (from the Chinook word Patshatl) is a ceremony integral to the governing the structure, culture and spiritual traditions of various First Nations living on the Northwest Coast (such as the Kwakwa­ka’­wakw, Nuu-ch­ah-­nulth and Coast Salish) and the Dene living in parts of the interior western subarctic.
Potlatch- (from the Chinook word Patshatl) is a ceremony integral to the governing the structure, culture and spiritual traditions of various First Nations living on the Northwest Coast (such as the Kwakwa­ka’­wakw, Nuu-ch­ah-­nulth and Coast Salish) and the Dene living in parts of the interior western subarctic.
Reside­ntial School- A boarding school for Aboriginal children, often operated by a religious organi­zation in co-ope­ration with the federal govern­ment.
The Story of a National Crime- a document published by Dr. Peter Henderson Bryce, exposing the govern­ment’s suppre­ssion of inform­ation on the health of Indigenous Peoples.

Prohib­ition

Prohib­ition was set in place to stop the production and selling of alcohol. This law was put in place 1918 to 1920. There were many reasons that contri­buted to the making this law, these reasons included, the first world war and temperance groups. The more important reason is because of the first world war. The war was the main topic for temperance groups and used it to increase Canadians’ awareness that alcohol is wasteful. Many were made to believe that alcohol was a reason the war started and why its brutality continued for years. Many were made to believe that alcohol was a reason the war started and why its brutality continued for years. Temperance groups such as the WCTU had parades, petitions and public campaigns to persuade - Canadians that alcohol needed to be restri­cted. They would criticize intoxi­cation by alcohol and would promote the complete removal of alcohol. These arguments were able to create a high discretion for alcohol use, thus making people more against it.
Loose laws and lack of enforc­ement increase the number of black markets. Organized crime and bootle­gging became an issue since people wanted to drink alcohol regardless of what the law said. Organized crime was also extremely unreli­ables due to some beverages being unsafe to drink.
Organized Crime, along with bootle­gging was a big negative outcome for prohib­ition. Many people disobeyed the law and wanted alcohol whatever the cost. Black market alcohol was also not only a threat to the govern­ment’s law but to safety and health too. Gangsters were dangerous people, and without legally distri­buted alcohol, and approval from the govern­ment, the alcohol may have included substances which stand as fatal threats to the human body.
Not only had the government been losing money because of black markets but it had also soon enough a lack of enforc­ement against alcohol, which in the end, led crime to thrive.
This is where black markets had come in, as they had made more money for narrowed indivi­duals instead of proper job fundings, for families and people who obeyed the law and lost their jobs because of prohib­ition. This showed how many Canadians suffered at the time being, corruption had also played a big component in prohib­ition which led Canadians in having a lack of trust towards the govern­ment.
With many conseq­uences and not enough govern­mental support, prohib­ition was a failure.
 

Hockey Night in 1920’s and 1930’s

Canada in the 1920’s and 30’s was very different from the country it is today, however the one thing that has remained the same is Canada's love for hockey. Canada was built on hockey; it brought families together. Hockey Night in Canada became a weekly Saturday night tradition as families would gather in a room with a radio and listen attent­ively as Foster Hewitt would describe the game with enthus­iasm.
Foster William Hewitt was born in 1902 in the city of Toronto. He began his sports career as a sports­writer and reporter, but was later given the position of sports announcer. His first broadcast was in 1922, and he was also the first ever announcer for Hockey Night in Canada. He became a loveable character and a household name known for his saying “he shoots, he scores!”.
The show became a sign of hope for Canadians all over the country. After World War One, many Canadians turned to hockey as a pastime to celebrate life after war. Then during the Great Depres­sion, it became a distra­ction from everyday stress. Hockey Night in Canada allowed for people to forget about their worries for a few hours and enjoy time with their families. Unfort­una­tely, during this time the NHL was suffering financ­ially thus affecting Hockey Night in Canada. The league crashed in 1929 and lost 40 percent of its franchises between the years of 1931 to 1942 as a result of the Great Depres­sion.

Between the Wars - Economy

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time, often annually.
Law of Supply and Demand: The law of supply and demand is a theory that explains the intera­ction between the supply of a resource and the demand for that resource. Generally, low supply and high demand increase price. In contrast, the greater the supply and the lower the demand, the price tends to fall.
Disposable Income: income remaining after deduction of taxes and other mandatory charges, available to be spent or saved as one wishes.
Margin: the margin is the difference between a product or service's selling price and the cost of produc­tion, or the ratio of profit to revenue.
Branch Plant: Canadian a plant or factory in Canada belonging to a company whose headqu­arters are in another country
Recession: Period of general economic decline, defined usually as a contra­ction in the GDP for six months or longer. Marked by high unempl­oyment, stagnant wages, and fall in retail sales, a recession generally does not last longer than one year and is much milder than a depres­sion.
Bull Market: a market in which share prices are rising, encour­aging buying.
Great Depres­sion: the worst economic downturn in the history of the indust­ria­lized world, lasting from 1929 to 1939. It began after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors.

Abstract Art - The Roaring 1920s

What is Abstract Art? What is Abstract Arts’ purpose? Anything/ an idea that doesn’t already exist, something that doesn’t have physical or concrete existence Abstract aren’t isn’t meant to visually represent anything physically recogn­izable or objective Abstract art is often mislead to be a mystery as to why it can be “over-­pri­ced”. In reality, certain shapes and colours hold symbolic value to the viewer, or the artist themself Because of the introd­uction of modernism, a newer generation of culture, and most import­antly, photog­raphy, abstract art is NOT meant to be pleasing due to its accuracy in reality, but pleasing due to its colour, shape, compos­ition, etc. Abstract art is blamed on the introd­uction of photog­raphy techno­logy. Tradit­ional realist artist could not compete with a camera, and because of this, had to create art pieces quicker.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF ABSTRACT ART… Surrealism - Artist created works that look as if they were real, but heavily distorted. This distortion was and is meant to surprise the viewer of the piece, and to “allow the uncons­cious to express itself”. Surrealism was first considered an art movement in Paris, in March 1917 by Guillaume Apolli­naire Cubism - Objects in cubism pieces of art are often studied, analyzed, and then broken apart and drawn separately on a canvas. Cubism was an “avant­-garde” art movement in Europe, and was influenced by artists such as Pablo Picasso, George Braque, Albert Gleizes, etc. Objects included in cubism pieces are drawn in multiple perspe­ctives, and have subdued colours. Fauvism - French for “The wild beasts”. The leaders of the Fauvism movement were Henri Matisse and Andre Derain. Fauvism holds bright colours, and wild brush work. Fauvism was a “conti­nua­tion” of Van Gogh pointi­llism style. Futurism - Originated in Italy, and founded Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
DADAISM - WHAT IS IT? WHY DOES IT MATTER? The name “DADA” has unclear origins. Most believe it’s meaning is supposedly a nonsense word, others believe it derives of the Romanian word “DADA” which means “yes yes” DADA was an art movement formed during WW1, and was a clear negative reaction to the horrors of war. DADA mocked materi­alism, and the art created from DADA was not thought of aesthe­tic­ally. Born in Zurich Unlike futurist, DADA was anti-war. But also anti-m­ission. They just wanted to shame the WW1. DADA was designed to be misund­ers­tood. In tune with the modern art movement, where the world’s culture was moving away from the tradit­ional means of copying an image, (due to the introd­uction of photog­raphy) DADA art was supposed to be spastic. The rapid change in modern art left tradit­ional art unequipped to represent the modern world, and is why DADA art was created. DADA rejected ration­ality, and was made in a way that any artist could create whatever they liked. On the subject of DADA, Hans Victor said; “...it was an artistic revolt against art” Art and literature were created by mostly men who had already fought in the war, in order to reveal the reality of what the true war experience is, unlike what propaganda explains or portrays DADA heavily influenced all abstract art mediums (cubism, futurism, etc), but was most evident in surrealism in North American Artists. DADA art often focused on the lifestyle of a common soldier. What makes the art of the early 20th century different, is that in no time in history has humans ever heavily focused on anyone other than the higher power (be it a King, Pharaoh, etc) DADA artist shared a sensib­ility, but not a same style. DADA artists rejected mass media and propag­anda. DADA supporters had lost faith in their culture, and essent­ially wanted to start the world from scratch.
IMPORTANT CANADIAN ARTIST Wyndham Lewis Lived in England but was born in Canada. He was known as England’s first “Rebel Artist” He founded his own Avant- Garde movement called Vorticism, A type of Abstract art in response to cubism. Vorticism encouraged others to “lose themselves to the brave new mechanical world.” Served as a military officer in WW1 Created art in the point of view of a vortex, with energy of modern society “It is more comfor­table for me, in the long run, to be rude than polite.nA hundred things are done today in the divine name of Youth, that if they showed their true colors would be seen by rights to belong rather to old age.”
 

1920’s Fads.

FASHION: ● An image synonymous with the 1920s, flappers were rebellious women, known for their: short, fringed dresses, bobbed haircuts. They could be found around dance-­halls and speake­asies, dancing the charleston to jazz music. ● Men also dresses up in jazz suits, suits with shortened pant legs made from fine materials.
ENTERT­AIN­MENT: ● Crossword puzzles: fill in the blank puzzles, involving the latest news, and trivia. ● Ouija boards: game in which the partic­ipants speak to “spirits”. ● Silent movies were a prominent source of entert­ain­ment, as films were just invented.
MUSIC AND CULTURE ● Jazz music was most popular ● Some famous mass musicians are: Louis D. Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, Benny and Goodman. ● Popular dance styles included: Charleston and the Lindy Hop
During the prohib­ition era, blatant use of prohibited language, and swearing was not allowed, so other words were used in their place.
POPULAR SLANG: Apples­auce: nonsense! Baloney: nonsense! Banana Oil: nonsense Giggle Water: alcohol Speakeasy: a bar that sold liquor illegally Swanky: elegant, fancy Ritzy: elegant, fancy The Bees Knees: excellent, high quality

Women in the Olympics (Year 1928)

Men vs. Women Men were seen as the athletes who competed in sports while the women were supposed to be on the sideline cheering. Women weren't seen as equal in joining the Olympics however their outsta­nding perfor­mance in these games proved that they deserved a spot on the team. The women were margin­alized by sexist assump­tions because it was thought that women women inherently lacked the stamina and strength required to compete in Olympi­c-c­alibre athletics.
First olympics to include women: 1928 was the first year women were allowed to partic­ipate in the olympics The 1928 Summer Olympics took place during May 17- August 12 in Amsterdam, Nether­lands. There were just seven women on a roster of 92 athletes (only about 10%), however they accounted for almost a third of Canada’s 15 total medals that year Only 5 track and field events open for women to compete i : 100-meter race, 800 meter race, 4 by 100 meter, relay, and high jump
Canadian Female Olympians “The Matchless Six” The first canadian women to attend the olympics were Fanny “Bobbie” Rosenfeld, Jean Thompson, Ethel Smith, Myrtle Cook, Ethel Cather­wood, and Florence “Jane” Bell. These six women are known as the “Matchless Six” this name given to them for their outsta­nding perfor­mance in the qualifying heats in the opening days of the games. Their partic­ipation remained a conten­tious topic of debate among Canadian organi­zers. Of the 5 events offered to women, the Matchless Six won four medals and took first place in unofficial points standings in women's track and field events , including: both bronze and silver in 100m, 4th place in 800m, gold in 4x100 relay and gold for high jump. The female 4 by 100 relay team from Canada was comprised of Fanny Rosenfeld, Ethel Smith, Myrtle Cook and Florence Bell

The Great Depression

When did it start and when did it end? It started in 1929 and ended in 1939.
What were some of the reasons that led to the Great Depression occurring? In the 1920s, the US economy had expanded greatly, and the nation’s wealth more than doubled. The stock market was doing extremely well, with everyone investing millions in their stocks. Soon, production decreased and unempl­oyment increased, raising the stocks higher than their original price. Wages were lower, and agricu­lture was struggling due to droughts and falling food prices. Consumer spending slowed down, and factory production had slowed. However, stock prices continued to rise. On October 24, 1929, investors started selling overpriced stocks, and 5 days later, on what is known as Black Tuesday, 16 million shares were traded after another wave of panic went through Wall Street. These shares ended up worthless, and the investors who bought stocks were wiped out comple­tely.
Who were some famous people during the Great Depres­sion? Nellie McClung, an important Canadian in the Great Depres­sion, became the first woman to be appointed to the CBC Board of Governors. Throughout the 1930s, she wrote many newspaper articles, short stories, and a novel on women’s rights, and was also a member of the Famous 5. She fought for the United church women to be ordained. R.B. Bennett was the prime minister of Canada from 1930 to 1935, and was a conser­vative. He told all Canadians that he would fight to end unempl­oyment or perish in the attempt. Unfort­una­tely, he lost the election in 1935 to William Lyon Mackenzie King, and had to move to London because everyone disliked him. Cairine Wilson became the first female senator in 1930, and the founder of the Ottawa Liberal Women’s Club. She had served on the senate until her death in 1962. She had been recognized for many things, such as supporting refugees and the first female president of the league of nations society in Canada.
 

Music & Culture

1. “What A Wonderful World” is written by Louis Armstrong. 2. This time of music was called the Jazz Age. 3. The Charleston is a type of Dance. 4. Jazz was founded in New Orleans, United States. 5. The Jazz age ended when the Great Depression began.
6. Fashion in the 1920s was another way in which jazz music influenced popular culture. 7. Jazz music is said to be the start of modern/pop culture. 8. At the beginning of the Jazz era, Jazz was mostly performed by people of Africa­n-A­merican decent. 9. Women began to attend bars, drink and smoke. 10. Most of the popular artists were from the United States.
11. Before jazz music, patriotic and sentim­ental songs were sung for the soldiers lost in the war. 12. Flappers danced to jazz in clubs and speake­asies. 13. Jazz has been a key influence on Hip-Hop in particular because Jazz itself was inspired by slave songs and southern blues. 14. The Charleston was created by James P. Johnson. 15. Dance marathons were held at clubs, people who kept dancing longest won. 16. After the war, Canada had and economic breakt­hrough.
17. Throughout the 1920s, Jazz music in specific, evolved into a world known classic, and is still used around the world. 18. Jazz influenced broadway production music and in films. 19. Jazz brought dozens of new dance moves to Canada. 20. The period from the end of the First World War until the start of the Depression in 1929 is known as the "Jazz Age."

Entert­ainment in the 1920s & 1930s

The 1920s was “The Golden Twenties” for Canadians. After WW1, there were many different types of entert­ainment that formed in Canada. Things like dance, music, radio, and films were the newest hottest sources of entert­ain­ment.
Movies were an art form of expression that was able to capture the interest of the masses worldwide They provided some happiness and a form of relief for people after WW1 Silent movies had no sound and were often fast paced movies ( this includes The Gold Rush, Blue Bater, Tess of the Storm Country) In the mid 20’s sound movies or talkies began to become popular (The Jazz Singer, The Terror) Horror movies were popular in the 20’s and 30’s b/c the events were far removed from the great depression and the upcoming war (examples of horror movies include Dracula, King Kong, The Mummy )
Talkie - in the 1920’s talkies or talking pictures were movies or short films that includes synchr­onized audible dialogue rather than readable text plates. It was a term widely used in the late 1920s and early 1930s to distin­guish sound films from silent films.
Dance The roaring 20s dances were wild and carefree. Popular dance styles that took over dance floors in the 20s include, the Charle­ston, the Black Bottom and the Shimmy Ballroom dancing continued with older and more conser­vative folks well into the ’30s. Most dancing took place in nightclubs and community centers. Later, marathon dancing was introd­uced. At first it was about who was the best dancer and later became about who could last the longest on the dance floor
Radio The radio was a new source of entert­ainment in the 1920s It’s considered to be the greatest invention of all time The radio stations broadc­asted everything over the radio from News and music and sports and community announ­cements The radio provided an inexpe­nsive source of entert­ainment in homes. The most popular type of music played over the radio was jazz.
Music The 1920s included the develo­pment and impact of Jazz music It was the decade that marked the beginning of the modern music era. The music recording industry was just beginning to form and new techno­logies helped to create the way music was made and distri­buted The way the music was recorded changed in the mid-1920s when the acoustical recording process was replaced with the electrical process. As the recording process improved, a number of indepe­ndent record labels also began to appear
       

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