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Japanese 102 Chapter Cheat Sheet by

Ch. 10 L1: Short Forms - Present, Affirm­ative

Same as dictionary form
Same as dictionary form
replace です with だ
replace です with だ
Short forms are used for:
* In casual conver­sations
* In repres­ented or quoted speech ("I think...", "She said...")
* In making negative requests ("Please don't..." )
* In expressing ideas like "I like doing..." or "I am good at doing..."

Informal Speech

* Questions do not end with か, but with rising intona­tion.

* The だ ending of な-adje­ctives and noun+です constr­uctions is usually dropped at the very end of a sentence.

I think that . . .

short form + とおもいます

They said . . .

short form + といっていました

Please don't . . .

negative short form + でください

Question Word with が

When there is a question trying to fill in a blank in the inform­ation sheet using a question word like だれ and なに:

Who went to Okinawa?

The answer also uses が:


New Piece of Inform­ation with が

What if we both know that someone went to Okinawa recently, and I know that it was Robert, but you don't. I will say:

ROBERT went to Okinawa.

The word for "­som­eth­ing­": なにか

The word for "­som­eth­ing­" is なにか:

The cat has brought something.

The word for "­any­thi­ng?­": なにか

なにか is used in questions as "­any­thi­ng?­":


"­Not.. anythi­ng" with なにも + negative

To say "­Not... anythi­ng" use なにも + negative:

いいえ、 ね­こはな­にもた­べませ­んでした。
No, the cat did not eat anything.

Past Tense Short Forms

Past tense, affirm­ative
Past tense, negative
replace て/で in te-forms with た/だ
replace い in the present tense negative ない with かった
drop the final です in the long forms
<- same
replace でした in the long forms with だった
drop the final です in the long forms
noun + です
replace でした in the long forms with だった
drop the final です in the long forms

Someone said

スーさんは、 こうこうのと­きめが­ねをか­けてい­たとい­っていました。
Sue said that she wore glasses in high school.

Think something in the past

I think Tom did it.

Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives

The student who is reading a book over there is Michiko.
The short form of verbs can be used to qualify nouns.

have not ... yet

have not ... yet

Sue has not woken up yet.

I haven't eaten yet.

(reason) から、 (s­tat­ement)。

(expla­nation) から、 (situa­tion)。= (situa­tion), because (expla­nat­ion). = (expla­nat­ion), therefore, (situa­tion).

あしたしけん­がある­から、­ わた­しはこ­んばん­べんき­ょうします。
We will have an exam tomorrow, therfore I will study this evening.

さむかったか­ら、 ­てかけ­ませんでした。
We didn't go out, because it was cold.
You can use the long or short form before から。 The long form before から is more polite

Ch. 10 L1: Comparison between Two Items

Making a statement:
Aのほうが Bより (­pro­per­ty)­。 = A is more (property) than B.

Ex. 1
China is larger than Japan.

Asking a question:
AとBと どちらのほう­が (­pro­per­ty)­。 =­ Be­tween A and B, which is more (prope­rty)?

Ex. 2
Which is cheaper, (going by) bus or train?

Ch. 10 L2: Comparison among Three or More Items

To compare 3 or more items:
[(class of items) のなかで] Aがいちばん (prope­rty)。=
A is the most (property) [among (a class of items)].

Ex. 1
Between Russia, France, and Japan, which country has the coldest climate?

Russia is the coldest, I think.

Ex. 2
What season do you like best?

I like fall the most.
中= なか

Ch. 10 L3: adject­ive­/noun + の

Adjective + の
When a noun follows an adjective, and when it is clear what you are referring to, you can replace the noun with the prounoun の.

い-adje­ctive + noun -> い-adje­ctive + の
な-adje­ctive + noun -> な-adje­ctive + の

Ex. 1
I have a black sweater. I have a red one, too.

Noun + の
A noun following another noun can be reduced. A sequence like "noun1のnoun2" can be reduced to "noun1の."

Ex. 2
Is this Sue's bag?

No, that is Mary's ___.

Ch. 10 L4: つもりだ - I intend to do.

verb(p­resent, short) + つもりだ = (I) intend to do. . .

I intend to play tennis with Takeshi this weekend.

verb(n­ega­tive, short) + つもり = (I) intend not to do. . .

Professor Yamashita does not intend to come to school tomorrow.

Ch. 10 L5: なる - "to become­"

The verb なる means "to become­," indicating a change. なる follows nouns and both types of adject­ives.

With い adje­ctives, the final い is dropped and く is added:
あたたかい ­-> あたたくなる to become warm/w­armer

With な adject­ives, the final な is dropped and に is added:
しずか(な)­ -> しずかになる to become quiet/­quieter

With nouns, に is added:
かいしゃいん­ -> かいしゃいん­になる to become a company employee

Ch. 10 L6: どこかに/どこかにも

something =  何か_
not anything = 何_も 

someone =  だれか_
not anyone =  だれ_も

somewhere =  どこか_
not anywhere =  どこ_も

_= the particle used

Did you see anybody?
No, I didn't see anybody.

Ex. 2
Did you do anything?
No, I didn't do anything.

Ch. 11 L1: "I want to do" using ~たい

Use the verb stem (the verb that goes before ます) + たいです to describe your hope or aspira­tion.

Grammar Rule:
verb stem + たいです I want to do...

Example 1:
I want to see a film this weekend.

The combin­ation of a verb and たい conjugates as an い-adje­ctive.

Negative Example:
I don't want to see that person.

Past Tense Example:
I went to a department store, because I wanted to buy a sweater.

Ch. 11 L2: ~ たり~たりする

To connect clauses as examples, and in no set order, you can use the form ~たり~たりする。

(activity A) たり (activity B) たりする
do such things as A and B

In Osaka, I will do such things as shopping, and eating dinner.

Ch. 11 L3: ~ことがある

The past tense short form of a verb + ことがある describes that you did something, or something happened, in earlier times.

Grammar Rule:
verb(s­hort, past, affirm­ative) + ことがある
have the experience of ...

Example 1:
I have had the experience of climbing Mt. Fuji.

Example 2:
Takeshi has never been absent from classes ( in his life ).

Ch. 11 L4: noun A や noun B

や connects two nouns, as does と. や suggests that the things referred to are proposed as examples, and that you are not citing an exhaustive list.

Grammar Rule:
A や B
A and B, for example

Example 1:
I wen to Kyoto and Nara (for example, and may have visited other places as well).

Ch. 12 L1: Explaining things using ~んです

Explain things using ~んです。

んです goes after the short form( affirm­ative or negative; present or past ).

I have an exam tomorr­ow.(So I can't go out tonight.)

The exam is over. (That's why I'm smiling.)

When it follows a noun or な-adje­ctive, な comes in between.

Ch. 12 L2: "too much" using ~すぎる

Verb stems may be followed by the helping verb すぎる, which means "too much."

~すぎる conjugates as a regular ru-verb.

I got up too early.

You must not eat too much.

To use すぎる with いー and なー adject­ives, you drop the い and な and add すぎる.

This book is expensive.

Ch. 12 L3: Advice using ~ほうがいいです

Use ほうがいいです to say that it is advisable to do something.

ほうがいいです follows different tense forms, depending on whether the advice is given in the affirm­ative or negative.

When the advice is in the affirm­ative, ほうがいいです follows the past tense short form of a verb.

When the advice is negative, the verb is in the present tense short form.

You'd better eat more vegeta­bles.

It is better not to skip classes.

Ch. 12 L4: formal "­bec­aus­e" using ~ので

ので is just like から, but it sounds more formal.

My Japanese has improved, because I always speak Japanese.

The reason part ends in short form present verb. When ので follows a な-adje­ctive or noun, な comes in between .

I do not like that person, because he is mean.
(reason) ので (si­tua­tion)。
situation, because (reason).

Ch. 12 L5: "­mus­t" using ~なければ

Use short form present, but drop the い and add なければいけません。

I have to study, because there will be an exam.
short form present - い + なければいけません
must do something.

Ch. 12 L6: Prediction using ~でしょう

Use でしょう when making a guess or a predic­tion. でしょう follows verbs and い-adje­ctives in short forms, in the affirm­ative and in the negative.

It will probably rain tomorrow.

It will probably not rain tomorrow.


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