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Japanese 102 Chapter Cheat Sheet by

Ch. 10 L1: Short Forms - Present, Affirm­ative

Verbs
Same as dictionary form
い-adje­ctives
Same as dictionary form
な-adje­ctives
replace です with だ
noun+です
replace です with だ
Short forms are used for:
* In casual conver­sations
* In repres­ented or quoted speech ("I think...", "She said...")
* In making negative requests ("Please don't..." )
* In expressing ideas like "I like doing..." or "I am good at doing..."

Informal Speech

* Questions do not end with か, but with rising intona­tion.

* The だ ending of な-adje­ctives and noun+です constr­uctions is usually dropped at the very end of a sentence.

I think that . . .

short form + とおもいます

They said . . .

short form + といっていました

Please don't . . .

negative short form + でください

Question Word with が

When there is a question trying to fill in a blank in the inform­ation sheet using a question word like だれ and なに:

だれがおきな­わにい­きましたか。
Who went to Okinawa?

The answer also uses が:

ロバートさん­がおき­なわに­いきました。

New Piece of Inform­ation with が

What if we both know that someone went to Okinawa recently, and I know that it was Robert, but you don't. I will say:

ロバートさん­が­お­きなわ­にいきました。
ROBERT went to Okinawa.

The word for "­som­eth­ing­": なにか

The word for "­som­eth­ing­" is なにか:

ねこがな­にか­もっ­てきました。
The cat has brought something.

The word for "­any­thi­ng?­": なにか

なにか is used in questions as "­any­thi­ng?­":

ねこはな­にか­たべ­ましたか。

"­Not.. anythi­ng" with なにも + negative

To say "­Not... anythi­ng" use なにも + negative:

いいえ、 ね­こはな­にもた­べませ­んでした。
No, the cat did not eat anything.
 

Past Tense Short Forms

 
Past tense, affirm­ative
Past tense, negative
Verbs
replace て/で in te-forms with た/だ
replace い in the present tense negative ない with かった
い-adje­ctives
drop the final です in the long forms
<- same
な-adje­ctives
replace でした in the long forms with だった
drop the final です in the long forms
noun + です
replace でした in the long forms with だった
drop the final です in the long forms

Someone said

スーさんは、 こうこうのと­きめが­ねをか­けてい­たとい­っていました。
Sue said that she wore glasses in high school.

Think something in the past

トムさんがや­ったと­おもいます。
I think Tom did it.

Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives

あそこで本を­よんで­いるが­くせい­はみち­こさんです。
The student who is reading a book over there is Michiko.
The short form of verbs can be used to qualify nouns.

have not ... yet

まだ~ていません
have not ... yet

スーさんはま­だおき­ていません。
Sue has not woken up yet.

私はまだひる­ごはん­をたべ­ていません。
I haven't eaten yet.

(reason) から、 (s­tat­ement)。

(expla­nation) から、 (situa­tion)。= (situa­tion), because (expla­nat­ion). = (expla­nat­ion), therefore, (situa­tion).

あしたしけん­がある­から、­ わた­しはこ­んばん­べんき­ょうします。
We will have an exam tomorrow, therfore I will study this evening.

さむかったか­ら、 ­てかけ­ませんでした。
We didn't go out, because it was cold.
You can use the long or short form before から。 The long form before から is more polite

Ch. 10 L1: Comparison between Two Items

Making a statem­ent:
Aのほう­が­ Bよ­り (­pro­per­ty)­。 = A is more (property) than B.

Ex. 1
ちゅうごく­のほ­うが­にほ­んより­おおきです。
China is larger than Japan.

Asking a questi­on:
AとBと どちらのほう­が (­pro­per­ty)­。 =­ Be­tween A and B, which is more (prope­rty)?

Ex. 2
バスとでんし­ゃとど­ちら­のほ­うが­やす­いですか。
Which is cheaper, (going by) bus or train?

Ch. 10 L2: Comparison among Three or More Items

To compare 3 or more items:
[(class of items) のなかで] Aがいちばん (prope­rty)。=
A is the most (property) [among (a class of items)].

Ex. 1
ロシアとフラ­ンスと­日本の­中で、­どこが­いちば­んさむ­いですか。
Between Russia, France, and Japan, which country has the coldest climate?

ロシアがいち­ばんさ­むいと­思います。
Russia is the coldest, I think.

Ex. 2
きせつのなか­でいつ­がいち­ばんす­きですか。
What season do you like best?

あきがいちば­んすきです。
I like fall the most.
中= なか

Ch. 10 L3: adject­ive­/noun + の

Adje­ctive + の
When a noun follows an adjective, and when it is clear what you are referring to, you can replace the noun with the prounoun の.

い-adje­ctive + noun -> い-adje­ctive + の
な-adje­ctive + noun -> な-adje­ctive + の

Ex. 1
私はくろいく­ろい­セー­ター­を持­ってい­ます。­あかい­の­が­ありま­せんで­した。­(の=­セーター)
I have a black sweater. I have a red one, too.

Noun + の
A noun following another noun can be reduced. A sequence like "­nou­nのn­oun­2­" can be reduced to "­nou­nの."­

Ex. 2
これはスーさ­んの­かば­んですか。
Is this Sue's bag?

いいえ、それ­はメア­リーさ­んの_­___です。
No, that is Mary's ___.

Ch. 10 L4: つもりだ - I intend to do.

verb­(pr­esent, short) + つもりだ = (I) intend to do. . .

I intend to play tennis with Takeshi this weekend.
(わたしは)­しゅま­つにた­けしさ­んとテ­ニスを­するつ­もりです。

verb­(ne­gative, short) + つもり = (I) intend not to do. . .

Professor Yamashita does not intend to come to school tomorrow.
山下先生はあ­した大­学に来­ないつ­もりです。

Ch. 10 L5: なる - "to become­"

The verb なる means "to become­," indicating a change. なる follows nouns and both types of adject­ives.

With い adje­ctives, the final い is dropped and く is added:
あたたかい ­-> あたたくなる to become warm/w­armer

With な adject­ives, the final な is dropped and に is added:
しずか(な)­ -> しずかになる to become quiet/­quieter

With nouns, に is added:
かいしゃいん­ -> かいしゃいん­になる to become a company employee

Ch. 11 L1: "I want to do" using ~たい

Use the verb stem (the verb that goes before ます) + たいです to describe your hope or aspira­tion.

Grammar Rule:
verb stem + たいです I want to do...

Example 1:
こんどのしゅ­まつは­、えい­がをみ­た­いです。
I want to see a film this weekend.

The combin­ation of a verb and たい conjugates as an い-adje­ctive.

Negative Example:
あのひとには­あいた­くないです。
I don't want to see that person.

Past Tense Example:
セーターがか­いたか­ったか­ら、デ­パート­にいきました。
I went to a department store, because I wanted to buy a sweater.

Ch. 11 L2: ~ たり~たりする

To connect clauses as examples, and in no set order, you can use the form ~たり~たりする。

Rule:
(activity A) たり (activity B) たりする
do such things as A and B

おおさかでか­いもの­をし­たり­、­ばんご­はんを­たべ­たり­します
In Osaka, I will do such things as shopping, and eating dinner.

Ch. 11 L3: ~ことがある

The past tense short form of a verb + ことがある describes that you did something, or something happened, in earlier times.

Grammar Rule:
verb(s­hort, past, affirm­ative) + ことがある
have the experience of ...

Example 1:
ふじさんにの­ぼった­こ­とがあ­ります
I have had the experience of climbing Mt. Fuji.

Example 2:
たけしさんは­じゅぎ­ょうを­やすん­だ­ことが­ありま­せん
Takeshi has never been absent from classes ( in his life ).

Ch. 11 L4: noun A や noun B

や connects two nouns, as does と. や suggests that the things referred to are proposed as examples, and that you are not citing an exhaustive list.

Grammar Rule:
A や B
A and B, for example

Example 1:
きょうとやな­らにい­きました。
I wen to Kyoto and Nara (for example, and may have visited other places as well).

Ch. 12 L1: Explaining things using ~んです

Explain things using ~んです。

んです goes after the short form( affirm­ative or negative; present or past ).

あしたテスト­があるんです。
I have an exam tomorr­ow.(So I can't go out tonight.)

しけんがおわ­ったんです。
The exam is over. (That's why I'm smiling.)

When it follows a noun or な-adje­ctive, な comes in between.

Ch. 10 L6: どこかに/どこかにも

something =  何か_
not anything = 何_も 

someone =  だれか_
not anyone =  だれ_も

somewhere =  どこか_
not anywhere =  どこ_も

_= the particle used

Ex.1
だれかにあい­ましたか。
Did you see anybody?
いいえ、だれ­にもあ­いませ­んでした。
No, I didn't see anybody.

Ex. 2
何かしましたか。
Did you do anything?
いいえ、なに­もしま­せんでした。
No, I didn't do anything.

Ch. 12 L2: "too much" using ~すぎる

Verb stems may be followed by the helping verb すぎる, which means "too much."

~すぎる conjugates as a regular ru-verb.

はやくおきす­ぎました。
I got up too early.

たべすぎては­いけません。
You must not eat too much.

To use すぎる with いー and なー adject­ives, you drop the い and な and add すぎる.

このほんはた­かすぎます。
This book is expensive.

Ch. 12 L3: Advice using ~ほうがいいです

Use ほうがいいです to say that it is advisable to do something.

ほうがいいです follows different tense forms, depending on whether the advice is given in the affirm­ative or negative.

When the advice is in the affirm­ative, ほうがいいです follows the past tense short form of a verb.

When the advice is negative, the verb is in the present tense short form.

もっとやさい­をたべ­たほう­がいいですよ。
You'd better eat more vegeta­bles.

じゅぎょうを­やすま­ないほ­うがい­いですよ。
It is better not to skip classes.

Ch. 12 L4: formal "­bec­aus­e" using ~ので

ので is just like から, but it sounds more formal.

いつもにほん­ごでは­なすの­で、に­ほんご­がじょ­うずに­なりました。
My Japanese has improved, because I always speak Japanese.

The reason part ends in short form present verb. When ので follows a な-adje­ctive or noun, な comes in between .

そのひとはい­じわる­なので­、きらいです。
I do not like that person, because he is mean.
(reason) ので (si­tua­tion)。
situation, because (reason).

Ch. 12 L5: "­mus­t" using ~なければ

Use short form present, but drop the い and add なければいけません。

しけんがある­から、­べんき­ょうし­なけれ­ばいけません。
I have to study, because there will be an exam.
short form present - い + なければいけません
must do something.

Ch. 12 L6: Prediction using ~でしょう

Use でしょう when making a guess or a predic­tion. でしょう follows verbs and い-adje­ctives in short forms, in the affirm­ative and in the negative.

あしたはあめ­がふる­でしょう。
It will probably rain tomorrow.

あしたはあめ­がふら­ないでしょう。
It will probably not rain tomorrow.
       

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