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AP Biology Evolution Cheat Sheet by

AP Biology evolution summary

Origins of Eukaryotes

Theory Name
Definition
Evidence
Endosy­­mb­iotic theory
Eukaryotic cells are believed to have evolved from early prokar­­yotes that were engulfed by phagoc­­ytosis
Mitoch­­on­drion and Chloro­­plast have double membranes, can reproduce in a fissio­­n-like process, have their own DNA which is similar to prokar­­yotic DNA, and has ribosomes similar to prokar­­yotes.

Origins of Life

Theory Name
Definition
Evidence
Abioge­­nesis
life evolved from nonliving chemical systems
Oparin­­-H­a­ldane hypothesis and Miller­­-Urey Experiment

Origins of Life

Hypoth­esi­s/E­xpe­riment
Definition
Evidence
Oparin­­-H­a­ldane hypothesis
life arose gradually from inorganic molecules, with “building blocks” like amino acids forming first and then combining to make complex polymers.
Miller­­-Urey Experiment
Miller­­-Urey experiment
organic molecules needed for life could be formed from inorganic components
Used a sparking device to mimic a lightning storm on early Earth. Their experiment produced a brown broth rich in amino acid
RNA world hypothesis
that the first life was self-r­­ep­l­i­cating RNA
Scientists think RNA building blocks (nucle­­ot­ides) emerged in a chaotic soup of molecules on early Earth. These nucleo­­tides bonded together to make the first RNAs. RNA store of genetic inform­­ation, self-r­­ep­l­i­cate, and act as a cellular catalyst
Metabo­­li­s­m­-first hypothesis
metabolic networks before DNA or RNA
origin of life is triggered by the accumu­­lation of very simple organic molecules in thermo­­dy­n­a­mi­­cally favorable circum­­st­a­nces. Simple organic molecules can then be combined in various ways that result in simple amino acids, lipids, etc. These, in turn, could act as catalysts for the formation of more organic molecules. This is the beginning of metabo­­lism.
Organic compounds came on meteorites
Simple organic compounds might have come to early Earth on meteor­­ites.
70 kinds of amino acids found on them - delivered by comets -
Life in Sea
life could have started in the oceans.
Yes - life is there despite scalding temper­­atures and no sunlight, many types of creatures are surviving here
 

Biological Classi­­fi­c­ation

Taxonomy
the practice of identi­­fying different organisms, classi­­fying them into categories and naming them
Binomial Nomenc­­lature
A standard way to refer to the scientific name of an organism by using the genus and species
Phylo­geny
the process of classi­­fying and organizing organisms based on evolut­­ionary relati­­on­ships
Domain
The new highest level (Eukarya, Eubact­eria, Archae­bac­teria)
Kingdom
The old highest level of classi­­fi­c­ation (Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista and Eubact­eria, Archae­bac­teria)
Phylum
The next level of classi­­fi­c­ation where along a number of Classes are clubbed up to form one Phylum
Class
A group of Orders which share a few simila­­rities
Order
A group of families showing somewhat few simila­­rities
Family
It comprises of a number of genus which share some similarity among themselves
Genus/ Genera
It composes of multiple species which have similar charac­­te­r­i­stics but different from that of species from other genus
Species
It is the lowest level of classi­­fi­c­ation and shows the high level of simila­­rities among the organisms

Phylog­enetic Tree

Phylog­enetic Tree

Evidence for Evolution

Darwin's Theory

Organisms differ; variation is inherited.
Organisms produce more offspring than survive.
Organisms compete for resources.
Organisms with advantages survive to pass them on to their children.
Species alive today are descended with modifi­cations from common ancestors.
This is the theory of Natural Selection.
 

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