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SQL Cheatseet with all important commands

COMMANDS

COMMAND
CODE
DESCRI­PTION
Create
CREATE DATABASE <DA­TABASE NAME>
CREATE TABLE <TABLE NAME>
used to create a new database or table
Drop
DROP DATABASE <DA­TABASE NAME>
DROP TABLE <TABLE NAME>
used to delete an existing database or table
Truncate
TRUNCATE TABLE <TABLE NAME>
used to delete inform­ation in the table but doesn t delete the table itself
Alter
ALTER TABLE <TABLE NAME>
ADD <COLUMN NAME> <DATA TYPE>
ALTER TABLE <TABLE NAME>
DROP COLUMN <COLUMN NAME>
ALTER TABLE <TABLE NAME>
ALTER COLUMN <COLUMN NAME> <DATA TYPE>
used to delete, add or modify constr­aints or columns in a table
Backup
BACKUP DATABASE <DA­TABASE NAME>
TO DISK = ‘<P­ATH­>’
used to create a backup on an existing database
Insert
INSERT INTO <TABLE NAME> (<C­OLU­MN1­>, ....)
VALUES (<V­ALU­E1>, ....)
used to insert new tuples (rows) in a table
*you do not need to specify all columns if you will add values for all the columns
Delete
DELETE FROM <TABLE NAME>
WHERE <CO­NDI­TIO­N>
used to delete tuples (rows) from a table
*if you don t add the WHERE clause, all rows will be deleted
Update
UPDATE <TABLE NAME>
SET <COLUMN NAME> = <NEW VALUE>
WHERE <CO­NDI­TIO­N>
used to modify existing records in a table
Select
SELECT <AT­TRIBUTE LIST>
FROM <TABLE NAME>
WHERE <CO­NDI­TIO­N>
used to select data from a table
*if you want all attributes of a table use (*)
Union, Intersect, Except
<FIRST SELECT STATEM­ENT>
UNION / INTERSECT / EXCEPT
<SECOND SELECT STATEM­ENT>
equivalent to the set operat­ions: union, inters­ection and differ­ence.
In
SELECT <AT­TRIBUTE LIST>
FROM <TABLE NAME>
WHERE <VA­LUE> IN <AN­OTHER SELECT QUERY>
compares a value with a set of values, returns true if the value is one of the elements of the set.
Null
<AT­TRIBUTE NAME> IS (NOT) NULL
used to check whether a value is NULL
Join
SELECT <AT­TRI­BUTES LIST>
FROM <TABLE 1> JOIN <TABLE 2>
ON <JOIN CONDIT­ION>
WHERE <SE­LECTION CONDIT­ION>
used to join two tables based on a related column between them
Assertion
CREATE ASSERTION <AS­SERTION NAME>
CHECK (<C­OND­ITI­ON>)
used to ensure a certain condition is always met in the database
Trigger
CREATE TRIGGER <TR­IGGER NAME>
BEFORE / AFTER
INSERT / UPDATE / DELETE
ON <TABLE NAME>
FOR EACH ROW
<TRIGGER BODY>
Triggers are activated when a defined action is executed for the table
Data Types
Numeric - INT, SMALLINT, DECIMAL(i, j)
String - CHAR, CHAR(n), VARCHAR(n)
Bit Sring - BIT, BIT(n)
Date and Time - DATE, TIME, TIME(i)
Timestamp -TIMESTAMP
Refere­ntial Triggered Action
ON DELETE <OP­TIO­N>
ON UPDATE <OP­TIO­N>
used to set what happens on updating or deleting a tuple (row) in the database that references another row
OPTIONS:
SET NULL
SET DEFAULT
CASCADE
Renaming (Aliasing)
<TABLE NAME> AS <NEW TABLE NAME>
(<NEW ATTRIBUTE 1 NAME>, .....)
Relation and attribute names can be renamed for conenience or to remove ambiguity using the keyword AS
Cross Product (,)
SELECT <AT­TRIBUTE LIST>
FROM <TABLE 1>, <TABLE 2>
used to produce a result table that has the number of rows of the first table multiplied by the number of rows of the second table
Duplicates
SELECT ALL <AT­TRIBUTE LIST>
FROM <TABLE NAME> <AT­TRI­BUT­E> LIKE <PA­TTE­RN> <AT­TRIBUTE NAME> IS (NOT) NULL
SELECT <AT­TRI­BUTES LIST>
FROM <TABLE 1> JOIN <TABLE 2> ON <JOIN CONDIT­ION> WHERE <SE­LECTION CONDIT­ION> SELECT DISTINCT <AT­TRIBUTE LIST> FROM <TABLE NAME>
DISTINCT is used to eliminate duplicates
ALL is used to allow duplicates *SELECT without ALL or DISTINCT is equivalent to ALL
String Compar­isons
<AT­TRI­BUT­E> LIKE <PA­TTE­RN>
LIKE is used for string comparisoJ
(%) replaces an arbitary number of characters
(_) replaces one character
Arithmetic Operators
# (+) add  ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ # (*) multiply
# ( ) subtract  ­ ­ ­ ­ # (/) divide
Ordering
<SELECT STATEM­ENT>
ORDER BY <AT­TRI­BUT­E> <ASC / DESC>
ORDER BY is used to order the resulting tuples
The keyword ASC (ascen­ding) and DESC can be used. *The default is ASC (ascen­ding)
Set Compar­isons
SELECT <AT­TRIBUTE LIST>
FROM <TABLE NAME>
WHERE <VA­LUE> > ALL / ANY <AN­OTHER SELECT QUERY>
ANY and ALL can be used with (=, >, >=, <, <=, <>) to compare a value with a set
#CONTAINS Compares two sets and returns true if one set contains the other
#EXISTS It checks whether the result of a nested query is empty or not
#UNIQUE checks if the table has duplicates
Aggregate Functions
 
#COUNT - Counts how many rows in a particular column
#SUM - adds together all the values in a particular column
#MIN returns the minumum value in a column
#MAX returns the maximum value in a column
#AVG - returns the average of a group of selected values
Types of Join
 
Inner join
Left Join
Right Join
Full Outer Join
Credit: @yosra­codes
           
 

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