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GCSE BIOLOGY: Nutrition Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

The notes for Nutrition for IGCSE EDEXCEL

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


- the process where some organisms are able to turn light energy into chemical energy
Organisms that use photos­ynt­hesis
- producers
reaction of photos­ynt­hesis
- endoth­ermic reaction
Where does it take place?
- in chloro­plasts
word equation
- Carbon Dioxide + water --> Glucose + Oxygen
Symbol equation
- 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H1206 + 6O2
Effect of temper­ature on rate of photos­ynt­hesis
- As temper­ature increases, the rate of photos­ynt­hesis. Once temper­ature exceeds the optimum, the rate of photos­ynt­hesis decreases as enzymes start to denature
Effect of light intensity on rate of photos­ynt­hesis
- as light intensity increases, so does rate of photos­ynt­hesis (Inverse square law: as distance from light source doubles, light intensity quarters)
Effect of CO2 concen­tration on rate of photos­ynt­hesis
- as CO2 concen­tration increases, so does rate of photos­ynt­hesis
- a factor that limits the rate of a reaction when there is not enough of it.


Ways leaves are adapted for photos­ynt­hesis
- thin which provides a short diffusion distance -spongey mesophyll layer has air pockets for efficient gas exchange -Palisade mesophyll layer has many chloro­plasts for photos­ynt­hesis
what are mineral ions used for in plants?
- growth
two common ions in plants
- magnesium (Mg2+) and Nitrate (NO3-)
why magnesium is used
- used in chlorphyll
why nitrate is used
- used in amino acids