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perfect tenses cheat sheet

Present perfec­t/s­imple past

1-when we talk about something that happened in the past but we dont know when exactly, perhaps we dont know or its not imporr­tant.
1- when we want to indicate that sth happened at a specific time.
2-in present perfect there's a connection between past and its effect in present time.
2- we use simple past for situations that existed for a period of time in the past but not now.
3- when we talk about how long an existing situation has lasted even if we dont know a precise length of time -> present perfect.
3-if we are interested in when a present situation began rather than HOW LONG it has been going for we use simple past.
4- to say an action or event has been repeated a number of times up to now.
4- however we use simple past to talk about how long sth went on for if the event or action is no longer going on.
5- if sth happened in recent past we use present perfect.
5- if sth happened in the distant past we use simple past.
6-for repeated actions when we use present perfect we suggest that the action might happend again.
6- for repeated actions when we use simple past we suggest that the action is unlikely to happen again
7-in news reports, often present perfect has advantages over simple past.

Present perfec­t/s­imple past ADVERBS

before­,fo­r,r­ece­ntl­y,gone, have...se­en..,
before­,fo­r,r­ece­ntl­y,died , ago , at...,­las­t....,­on..., once,t­hen­,ye­sterday
 

Present perfect continuous

we use the present perfect continuous to talk about a situation or activity that started in the past and has been in progress for a period until now.
sometimes we use present perfect continuous with expres­sions that indicate the time period e.g with since and for.
without such an expression the present perfect continuous refers to a recent situation or activity abd focuses on its present results.
we often use present perfect continuous with HOW LONG ... ?

Present perfect vs Present perfect continuous

we use both pp.con and pp for sth started in the past which affects the situation that exists now the difference is that the pp.con focuses on the activity or ecent which may or may not be finished and pp however focuses on the effect of the activity or event or the fact that sth has been achieved.
when we want to emphasize that a situation has changed over a period of time up to now and may continue to change we prefer the present perfect cont. to present perfect.
if we talk about a specific change over a period of time which ends now partic­ularly to focus on the result of this change we use present perfect

future perfect

The future perfect is a verb tense used for actions that will be completed before some other point in the future.
“No, that won’t work! At eight o’clock I will have left already,” she says.

What does the future perfect tell us here? It tells us that Linda is going to leave for her trip some time after right now, but before a certain point in the future (eight o’clock tonight). She probably shouldn’t have waited until the last minute to find a cat sitter.
 

past perfect vs simple past

we use past perfect to talk about a past situation or activity that took place before another past situation or activity or before a particular time in the past.
we use the simple past rather than the past perfect when we simple talk about a single activity or event in the past.
we use past perfect when we say what we wanted or hoped to do but didnt.
when we use a time expressing e.g after a soon as .... to say hat one event happened after another we use either the past simple or past perfect for the event that happend first and the past simple for the event that happened second.
when we give an account of a sequence of past events we usually put these event in chrono­logical order with the past simple if we want to refer to an event out of order that is it happened before the last event we have talked about we use the present perfect
1 emigrated to us 2 reforms had begun(out of order) 3 moved to us 4 had made fortune (out of order)

past perfect continuous vs past perfect

we use the past perfect con. when we talk about a situation or activity that happened over a period up to a particular past time or until shortly before it.
we use past perfect con. to talk about continuity or duration of a situation or activity and the past perfect to talk about the completion of a situation or activity or its effects.

future perfect continuous

he future perfect contin­uous, also sometimes called the future perfect progre­ssive, is a verb tense that describes actions that will continue up until a point in the future. The future perfect continuous consists of will + have + been + the verb’s present participle (verb root + -ing).
When we describe an action in the future perfect continuous tense, we are projecting ourselves forward in time and looking back at the duration of that activity. The activity will have begun sometime in the past, present, or in the future, and is expected to continue in the future.
When I turn thirty, I will have been playing piano for twenty-one years.
At five o’clock, I will have been waiting for thirty minutes.
In November, I will have been working at my company for three years.
               
 

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