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Colonization of Land by Animals Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Lecture 7

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Animal Phylogeny - Chordates

Are bilate­rians monophyletic?
- Yes. Monoph­yletic Group
Are pseudo­coe­lomates monophyletic?
- No. Evolved seperately many times
Phylum Chordata
All chordates have all of these charac­ter­istics
1. Dorsal Neural Tube
- spinal cord in humans. Main nervous tissue
2. Notochord
- may be replaced by vertebral column
- Cartalage that provides support and becomes spinal column in humans from posterior to anterior
3. Pharyngeal Slits (become gills in fish)
- pharyngeal pouches present in all vertebrate embryos
4. Post-anal tail
- humans have this during embryo


What makes a gator a verteb­rate?
- Distinct and well-d­iff­ere­ntiated possessing sensory organs.
- The brain is enclosed in a protective box
Vertebral Column
- Enclosed and protects the dorsal nerve cord
Verteb­rates also have
- Internal Organs: liver, kidneys, endocrine glands, heart and closed circul­atory system
- Endosk­eleton: made of cartilage or bone
Makes possible great size and extrao­rdinary movement
How is a gator a chordate?
- Dorsal Neural Tube
- Notochord
- Pharyngeal Slits (during develo­pment)
- Post-anal tails