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Cancer and diseases (Staying Alive) Cheat Sheet by

Lung Cancer

Causes of Lung Cancer:
- Smoking tobacco (80%)
- Family history
- Previous lung disease
- Air pollution

Symptoms include:
- Coughing, especially if it persists or becomes intense
- Pain in the chest, shoulder, or back unrelated to pain from coughing
- A change in color or volume of sputum
- Shortness of breath
- Changes in the voice or being hoarse
- Harsh sounds with each breath (stridor)
- Recurrent lung problems, such as bronchitis or pneumonia
- Coughing up phlegm or mucus, especially if it is tinged with blood
- Coughing up blood
- Loss of appetite or unexpl­ained weight loss
- Muscle wasting (also known as cachexia)
- Fatigue
- Headaches, bone or joint pain
- Bone fractures not related to accidental injury
- Neurol­ogical symptoms, such as unsteady gait or memory loss
- Neck or facial swelling
- General weakness
- Bleeding
- Blood clots

Heart Disease

What is heart disease?
Heart disease is an umbrella term for several diseases related to the heart
What other names is heart disease referred to as?
Cardio­vas­cular disease
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Heart Disease
Heart Failure
Peripheral vascular disease
Hypert­ensive Disease
Rheumatic Heart Disease
List 5 risk factors.
High Blood Pressure
Family History
Outline how 2 risk factors can contribute to heart disease.
Diet- If you are obese fat can grow around your heart or in you arteries, limiting your hearts ability to function
Family History - If your family has a history of heart disease, you are more likely to contract heart disease due to genes.


Treatment of emphysema:

- Drug therapies
- Oxygen therapy
- Pulmonary rehabi­lit­ation
- Preven­tion: smoking cessation
- Vaccin­ation
- Nutrition
- Surgery

Prevention of emphysema:

To prevent emphysema, don't smoke and avoid breathing secondhand smoke. Wear a mask to protect your lungs if you work with chemical fumes or dust.

Lung Cancer

Treatment Options include:

- Surgery
- Radiof­req­uency ablation
- Chemot­herapy
- Radiot­herapy
- Targeted therapy
- Immuno­therapy
- laser therapy
- photod­ynamic therapy
- cryosu­rgery
- electr­oca­utery

To reduce risk of lung cancer:
- Don't smoke. 
- Stop smoking. 
- Avoid second hand smoke. 
- Test your home for radon. 
- Avoid carcin­ogens at work. 
- Eat a diet full of fruits and vegeta­bles. 
- Exercise most days of the week. 

Artificial heart valves

Artificial heart valves are mechanical or animal valves, implanted into a heart to help it pump blood through the heart. It is usually given to patients with valvular heart disease.
• The animal heart valves can raise some problems, because some patients may have a moral or religious problem with the animal's death.
• The animal heart valves also does not last as long as the mechanical heart valves.
• However the mechanical heart valves do require blood thinner medica­tion, but the animal valves don't more than half the time.
• All replac­ement heart valves increase risk of stroke.
• Mechanical heart valves also have a clicking noise that can be annoying to some patients,
• But unlike the animal often does not require a second surgery.
• However it is a very efficient way of treating valvular heart disease,
• But there are a few other options that are only slightly more expensive.

Because it often requires surgery or medica­tion, and can increase risk of stroke.
I believe it is better not to get Artificial Valves.


Cause of emphysema:

- Smoking
- Low body weight
- Childhood respir­atory disorders
- Exposure to passive cigarette smoke
- Air pollution
- Occupa­tional dust (mineral dust, cotton dust, for example)
- Inhaled chemicals (coal, grains, isocya­nates, cadmium, for example).

Symptoms of emphysema:

- Shortness of breath
- Cough.
- Frequent lung infections
- Producing a lot of mucus (phlegm or sputum)
- Wheezing
- Reduced appetite
- Weight loss
- Fatigue
- Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (from cyanosis caused by poor respir­ation)
- Anxiety, depression
- Sleep problems
- Mornin­g h­ead­ach­e s­ignals nighttime breathing difficulty (nocturnal hyperc­apnia or hypoxemia)


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