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Rohingya Grammar Basics Cheat Sheet by

Noun Classes

 
Defini­teness
Singular
Plural
NC1
DEF
...-wa
...-un
 
INDEF
ekzon* / uggwa ...
okkol ...
NC2
DEF
...-an
...-un
 
INDEF
ekkan ...
okkol ...
NC1 - Noun Class 1: Animate, inc. humans, animals, plants, and certain objects that are manipu­lated by humans, such as pen, book, etc.
NC2 - Noun Class 2: Everything else inanimate, and abstract nouns, such as justice, freedom, etc.
*Ekzon is used in the indefinite for humans and counting humans, e.g., ekzon maštor "­a/one teache­r" and duizon manuš "two men."

Noun Classes with Examples

 
Defini­teness
Singular
Plural
NC1
DEF
manušš­wa "the man"
manušš­un "the men"
  
fúllwa "the flower­"
fúllun "the flower­s"
 
INDEF
ekzon manuš "a man"
manuš okkol "me­n"
  
uggwa fúl "a flower "
fúl okkol "fl­owe­rs"
NC2
DEF
górgan "the house"
górgun "the houses­"
 
INDEF
ekkan gór "a house"
gór okkol "ho­use­s"
The bold letters represent the noun classifier endings. * When suffixes, such as -an, -un follow nouns, ending in a vowel or -r, - g- is inserted between the noun stem and the suffix, however, there are few exceptions with loan words, e.g., ṭebilgan, not ṭebi­llan as one would expect.
Note that non-re­fer­ential nouns, such as time words, are unmarked for defini­teness.

Rohingya Noun Cases

Cases
Suff­ixes (marked by)
Usage
Absolutive (ABS)
bare form/u­nmarked
Subject of intran­sitive clause, Direct Object of transitive clause
Ergative (ERG)
-e
Subject of transitive clause, indicates the agent of action
Genitive (GEN)
-r
Possessor
Dative (DAT)
-re
Object
Ablative (ABL)
-ttu
indicates movement away from, Possessor in a possessive predicate
Locative (LOC)
-t
spatial "­in/­at,­" movement toward "­to"
Benefactive (BEN)
-lla
Oblique, for, intended for
Instrumental (INST)
-e
indicates "by means of"

Noun Cases with Examples

 
Sing­ular
Sing­ular
Plural
Cases
Nouns, ending in vowel
Nouns, ending in consonant
All nouns
ABS
fuwa "ch­ild­"
šohor "city"
... okkol
ERG
fuwa(y­)e
bafe "father"
... okkole
GEN
fuwar
šohor(­o)r
... okkol(­o)r
DAT
fuware
šohor(­o)­re
... okkol(­o)­re
ABL
fuwa­ttu
šohor(­o)­ttu
... okkol(o)ttu
LOC
bisanat "in bed"
šohor(­o)t
... okkol(­o)t
BEN
fuwa­lla
šohor(­o)­lla
... okkol(o)lla
INST
gari(y)e "by car"
-
gari okkole

Notes on noun inflection

When the stem ends with a consonont and the suffix starts with a consonant, -o will be inserted. When the stem ends with a vowel and the suffix starts with a vowel, -y is inserted. Examples:
  šohor­ + -r šohor­­or
  fuwa + -e fuwaye
When the noun stem ends with the glides ai and ou, the consonants -y and -w will be inserted between the noun stem and the case marker, respec­tively. Because of syllable constr­aint, -o is inserted before the case marker. Examples:
  bái + r báiyor "brother's"
  bou + r bouwor "wi­fe'­s"
 

Personal Pronouns

 
Subjective
 
Obje­ctive
Gloss
Ergative
Gloss
Dative
I
ãi
me
ãre
you*
tui
you*
tore
you**
tũi
you**
tũware
he
hite
him
hitare
she
hiba
her
hibare
we
ãra
us
ãrare
you
tũwara
you
tũwara­re
they
hitara
them
hitara­re
*Non-­hon­orific, singular / **Ho­nor­ific, singular

Personal Pronouns

 
Possessive
 
Obli­que
Gloss
Genitive
Gloss
Ablative
my / mine
ãr
to/from me
ãttu
your* / yours
tor
to/from you*
tottu
your** /yours
tũwar
to/from you**
tũwa­ttu
his
hitar
to/from him
hita­ttu
her / hers
hibar
to/from her
hiba­ttu
our / ours
ãrar
to/from us
ãrattu
your / yours
tũwarar
to/from you
tũwara­ttu
their / theirs
hitarar
to/from them
hitara­ttu
*Non-­hon­orific, singular / **Ho­nor­ific, singular

Personal Pronouns

 
Oblique object
Gloss
Benef­active
for me
ãlla
for you*
tolla
for you**
tũwa­lla
for him
hita­lla
for her
hiba­lla
for us
ãralla
for you
tũwara­lla
for them
hitara­lla
*Non-­hon­orific, singular / **Ho­nor­ific, singular
Rohingya uses the Benefa­ctive case to express the same idea as what English achieves by prepos­ition "­for­"or "­int­ended for," e.g., "She made food for you.­"

Example 1

Hibaye
bat
rander.
3SGF-ERG
rice-ABS
cook-P­RES.3
she
rice
cook
"She is cooking rice."

Example 2

Tome
górot
giye.
Tom-ERG
house-LOC
go-PAST.3
Tom (Agent)
to house
went.
"Tom went home."

Example 3

Hite
ei
kitabwa
kinne.
3SGM-ERG
DEM.PROX
book-N­C2.ABS
buy-PAST.3
he
this
book
bought
"He bought this book."
                   
 

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