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How to write Rohingya Cheat Sheet by

All you need to know about how to write Rohingya

Rohingya Alphabet

Letter
IPA
Pron­unc­iat­ion
Exam­ples
A a
/ɑ/
as in 'fa­ther'
anḍa, asman
à ã
/ɑ̃/
nasalized /ɑ/
ãi, tũi
B b
/b/
as in 'boy'
bái, bou
D d
/d/
as in 'dog'
dan, deho
Ḍ ḍ
/ɖ/
*see note below
ḍõr, ḍak
E e
/e/
as in 'bed'
enaš, egena
Ẽ ẽ
/ẽ/
nasalized /ẽ/
fẽsa, kẽs
F f
/f/
as in 'fun'
fuwa, fani
G g
/ɡ/
as in 'go'
gór, gula
H h
/h/
as in 'home'
hana, hat
I i
/i/
as ee in 'she­ep'
isamas, iin
Ĩ ĩ
/ĩ/
nasalized /i/
gĩyu
J j
/d͡ʒ/
as in 'jam'
januwar
K k
/k/
as in 'car' (soft k)
kitab, kura
L l
/l/
as in 'lap'
lal, lamba
M m
/m/
as in 'man'
mas, miyula
N n
/n/
as in 'name'
nak, nun
O o
/ɔ/
as oo in 'door'
ošuk, oran
Õ õ
/ɔ̃/
nasalized /ɔ/
õṛi, õl
P p
/p/
as in 'pet' (soft p)
in loan/f­oreign words
R r
/ɾ/
as in Italian 'pr­imo'
ruṭi, rari
Ṛ ṛ
/ɽ/
*see note below
ṛaṭ
S s
/s/
as in 'same'
sini, sul
Š š
/ʃ/
as sh in 'ship'
šõṛo, šohor
T t
/t/
as in French 'très'
tormus, tũi
Ṭ ṭ
/ʈ/
voiceless /ɖ/
ṭayon, ṭala
U u
/u/
as oo in 'noon'
usol
Ũ ũ
/ũ/
nasalized /u/
kũir, ũṭ
V v
/v/
as in 'visa'
in loan/f­oreign words
W w
/w/
as in 'wax'
wada
Y y
/j/
as in 'year'
iyan
Z z
/z/
as in 'z­ebra'
zaga, zuta

Pronou­ncing retrof­lexed consonants

Ḍ ḍ, Ṛ ṛ, Ṭ ṭ are retrof­lexed sounds that pronounced with the underside of the tongue curled up just behind the alveolar ridge.

Leng­thened Conson­ants

IPA
Written as
Exam­ple
Gloss
/jː/
jj
aijja
today
/ʃː/
šš
bišš
faith
/gː/
gg
beggun
all
Lengthened consonants are marked by doubling the symbol. Example list is not exhaus­tive.

Leng­thened Vowels

IPA
Written as
Exam­ple
Gloss
/iː/
ii
iin
"th­ese­"
/oː/
oo
hoor
"cl­oth­es"
/uː/
uu
duud
"mi­lk"
Long vowels are marked by doubling the vowel symbol.
Short and long vowels can contrast in meaning, e.g.: hoor "cl­oth­es" vs. hor "(you) say".

Stressed Vowels

á
bái vs. bai - "br­oth­er" vs. "th­rou­gh"
ó
gór vs. gor - "ho­use­" vs. "(you) do"
Stress markers are only used on a few words where context is not enough to determine meaning.

Diph­tho­ngs

IPA
Written as
Pron­unc­iat­ion
Exam­ples
/ɑ͡i/
ai
as in 'bye'
bái, fuwain
/e͡i/
ei
as in 'day'
beil, leikke
/ɔ͡i/
oi
as in 'boy'
boin, boišše
/ɔ͡u/
ou
as in 'home'
bou
/u͡i/
ui
as in Spanish 'muy'
dui, tui
/ã͡i/
ãi
nasalized /ɑ͡i/
ãi (1SG)
/ũ͡i/
ũi
nasalized /u͡i/
tũi (2SG.hon)
Diphthongs in Rohingya are treated as a single sound.

Vowel glides

IPA
Written as
Exam­ples
/ua/
uwa
fuwa, janu­war
/ũa/
ũwa
tuwara
/ia/
iya
iya, iyan
/ie/
iye
diye, giye
/io/
iyo
giyos, niyom
/iu/
iyu
niyu­la, diyum
/ĩu/
ĩyu
gĩyu
/uo/
uwo
uwore, šuwor
/ue/
uwe
bouwe
Glides are written with semivowels to avoid breaking the rules for Rohingya syllable structure. Ref: LearnRohingya.com for more details.
 

Cons­onant ending stems and suffixes

Lengthen last stem consonant when the suffix is -an, -un or -wa.
manuš + -wa manuš­šwa
hãt + -an hãttan
holom + -un holom­mun
Insert /g/ when stem ends with /r/ and suffix is -an, -un, or -wa.
sair + -wa sair­gwa
gór + -an górgan
bandor + -un bandor­gun
Insert /o/ when the stem ends with a consonant and the suffix is -r.
šohor + -r šohor­or
Loan words can deviate from the insertion rules above.

Vowel ending stems and suffixes

Insert /y/ when stem ends with a vowel and suffix is -e.
hiba + -e hibaye
fuwa + -e fuwaye
Insert /g/ when stem ends with a vowel and suffix is -an or -un.
fara + -an fara­gan
azadi + -un azadi­gun

Rohingya keyboard - Additional dead key

The Rohingya keyboard defines the semicolon key ; as an additional dead key for typing Rohingya letters like retrof­lexed consonants and nasalized vowels.
Download from LearnRohingya.com/resources/keyboard/

Rohingya keyboard - Conson­ants

PC*
MacOS
Base
Result
;
;
D
;
;
d
;
;
R
;
;
r
;
;
S
Š
;
;
s
š
;
;
T
;
;
t
* Windows 10 / 8.1 / 8 / 7 and Linux
First press "­;" and then press the consonant.
To type semicolon, press "­;" and then Spacebar.

Rohingya keyboard - Nasalized vowels

PC
MacOS
Base
Result
;
;
A
Ã
;
;
a
ã
;
;
E
;
;
e
;
;
I
Ĩ
;
;
i
ĩ
;
;
O
Õ
;
;
o
õ
;
;
U
Ũ
;
;
u
ũ
First press ; key and then the corres­ponding vowel key.

Rohingya keyboard - Stressed vowels

PC
MacOS
Base
Result
´
⌥ +e
A
Á
´
⌥ +e
a
á
´
⌥ +e
E
É
´
⌥ +e
e
é
´
⌥ +e
O
Ó
´
⌥ +e
o
ó
´ = Acute (usually below the ESC-key) / ⌥ = Option key
On PC, first pressing ´ and then the vowel.
On MacOS, first pressing Opti­on+e and then the vowel.

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