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Organic Chemistry Cheat Sheet by

Grade 12 Organic Chemistry. Refer to NSC Examination Guidelines 2021 South Africa


Organic Molecules: molecules containing carbon atoms
Structural formula: shows which atoms are attached to which within the molecule. Atoms are repres­ented by their chemical symbols and lines are used to represent ALL the bonds that hold the atoms together.
Condensed structural formula: shows the way in which atoms are bonded together in the molecule, but DOES NOT SHOW ALL bond lines
Hydroc­arbon: Organic compounds that consist of hydrogen and carbon only
Homologous series: A series of organic compounds that can be described by the same general formula OR in which one member differs from the next with a CH2 group
Saturated compounds: Compounds in which there are no multiple bonds between C atoms in their hydroc­arbon chains
Unsatu­rated compounds: Compounds with one or more multiple bonds between C atoms in their hydroc­arbon chains
Functional group: A bond or an atom or a group of atoms that determ­ine(s) the physical and chemical properties of a group of organic compounds
Structural isomer: Organic molecules with the same molecular formula, but different structural formulae
Chain isomers: Same molecular formula, but different types of chains
Positional isomers: Same molecular formula, but different positions of the side chain, substi­tuents or functional groups on the parent chain
Functional isomers: Same molecular formula, but different functional groups Aldehydes and Ketones, Esters and Carboxylic Acids
Molecular Formula: A chemical formula that indicates the type of atoms and the correct number of each in a molecule.

Classi­fic­ation of organic molecules



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