Web Accessibility - Definition
Web accessibility refers to the inclusive practice of removing barriers that prevent interaction with, or access to websites, by people with disabilities. When sites are correctly designed, developed and edited, all users have equal access to information and functionality. -
Disability - Definition
U.S. Federal Law defines a disability as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual, a record of such an impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment. ADA Title II § 35.108
Web Accessibility Aim to Help
Blindness, low vision, various types of color-blindness
Deafness and hard-of-hearing
Inability to use a mouse, slow response time, limited fine motor control
Learning disabilities, distractibility, inability to remember or focus on large amounts of information
United States Access Board
The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, more formally known as the United States Access Board, was created out of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The U.S. Access Board is a federal agency that promotes equality for people with disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology.
Accessibility - 11 represents the number of letters between A & Y
Accessible Educational Material
Accessible Instructional Material
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a US labor law that prohibits unjustified discrimination based on disability
ADA Amendments Act of 2008 amended the ADA and other nondiscrimination laws to broadened the definition of a disability
WAI's Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines
UN's Convention\Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
DHTML Style Guide Working Group provided guidelines to WAI for use in creating the WCAG.
Internationalization - 18 represents the number of letters between I & N
Information and Communication Technology
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990
NonVisual Desktop Access is a free "screen reader"
WCAG 2.0's 14 guidelines broken into 4 sections
Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, & Robust
Rich Internet Application
WAI's User Agent Accessibility Guidelines
Universal Design for Learning
World Wide Web Consortium is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web
W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative is an effort to improve the accessibility of the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) for people with disabilities
WAI's Accessible Rich Internet Applications is a technical specification that specifies how to increase the accessibility of web applications
WAI's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
Refreshable Braille Displays provide an braille alternative to audible screen readers.
Eye Tracking, Head Tracking and Gesture solutions can be used as an alternative to a mouse or cursor keys.
Specialty Keyboards and Switches including Large-Print and braille for visually impaired, large buttons, macros, overlays and custom configurations for motor control
Magnification software can make regions of the screen larger. Some can change contrast and other visual filters.
Screen Readers audibly reads contents of a computer or phone's screen.
SNP (Sip-and-Puff) systems track inhaling or exhaling in a specifically designed tube.
Speech Recognition software can be used as a keyboard and mouse alternative.
The Tongue Drive System (TDS) may be used as an alternative to a mouse or cursor keys.
WCAG2 at a Glance: POUR
Provide text alternatives for non-text content.
Provide captions and alternatives for audio and video content.
Make content adaptable; and make it available to assistive technologies.
Use sufficient contrast to make things easy to see and hear.
Make all functionality keyboard accessible.
Give users enough time to read and use content.
Do not use content that causes seizures.
Help users navigate and find content.
Make text readable and understandable.
Make content appear and operate in predictable ways.
Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
Maximize compatibility with current and future technologies.
Accessibility Legislative Timeline
Communications Act of 1934 created the FCC and regulation for telecommunications and radio frequency use.
Section 504 created and extended civil rights to people with disabilities. Section 504 has provided opportunities for children and adults with disabilities in education, employment and various other settings. It allows for reasonable accommodations such as special study area and assistance as necessary for each student.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA or EHA) required all public schools accepting federal funds to provide equal access to education and one free meal a day for children with physical and mental disabilities.
Section 508 added to the Rehabilitation Act establishes requirements for electronic and information technology developed, maintained, procured, or used by the Federal government. Section 508 requires Federal electronic and information technology to be accessible to people with disabilities, including employees and members of the public
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) ensures schoolchildren with a disability, ages 3-21 (or until high school graduation) are provided with Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that is tailored to their individual needs.
Telecommunications Act of 1996 amends the Communications Act Section 255 to require telecommunications products and service to be accessible to people with disabilities.
Federal Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility and Compliance Act amended Section 508 to correct the shortcomings of the original section 508; the original Section 508 had turned out to be mostly ineffective, in part due to the lack of enforcement mechanisms.
ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) of 2008
United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
Refresh of the Section 255 Guidelines and the Section 508 Standards
Understanding Legal Obligations