Voice input involves the computer "listening" for spoken words from the user.
1. This technology may be difficult to use due to the complexity of natural language
2. The computer may not understand all ways to phrase a single command.
3. The computer may not be able to understand different accents.
4. Background noise may render the user's voice unintelligible.
Types of Computer Interface
Opcodes and Data
Opcode refers to the operative component of the machine code instruction. This might be ADD, where the data in this case would be the number to add(and would come after the opcode).
This is a three-letter name given to an opcode in order to make assembly more human-readable.
Translation to Machine Code
Assembly code is one-to-one with the mnemonic codes, but due to the existence of variables and labels translation becomes more difficult.
1. Labels are converted to memory addresses and stored in a symbol table(not the same kind as in lexical analysis, though!).
2. After that, mnemonics are converted into their binary counterparts and are combined with binary representations of data.
The IDE may automatically highlight key words like "if" or "print", based on the language being used. Also, most IDEs will implement automatic line numbering.
If a syntax error has been detected, the IDE may attempt to point to the place in the code where the error has occurred.
Breakpoints will make the program halt at a specific line of code.
This involves making the program run through one line of code at a time and only proceeding when the developer presses a button to move to the next line.
This allows potentially problematic or otherwise unwanted changes to be rolled back, or to create stable builds at a specific point in time and still allow development to continue.
System Design Evaluation
Systems Design Evaluation helps the company and client to determine whetherr the project was a success. This involves considering many criteria:
Determine whether the system fits the objective specification, as established by the client at the beginning of the project.
Whether the program runs efficiently and effectively.
This is whether the program crashes frequently or is generally stable.
Determine whether the system has cost more or less than expected.
Whether the end user is able to easily manoeuvre or use the program. This may depend on the user's level of expertise with computer software.
Link Editors and Link Loaders
What's a link editor?
This ensures that previously compiled libraries are loaded into a program at compile-time and the required links are created. The code from the libraries then becomes part of the final executable code.
What's a linking loader?
Rather than making the libraries specifically part of the final executable, a linking loader just loads the libraries when the program is executed or loaded into memory.
A Translator is any piece of software which converts higher-level source code into machine code. These are compilers, interpreters or assemblers.
1. Compilers convert source code from a high-level language into machine code. This generates an executable file which can be distributed.
2. This protects the intellectual property of the developers, since the source code is usually very difficult to reverse-engineer.
3. However, code compiled for one target platform(i.e, Windows) will not run on another(i.e Linux).
1. An interpreters translates source code into machine code line-by-line, executing each line as it goes.
2. This means that source code only has to be written once to run on any machine that has an interpreter for it.
3. It's easier to test single lines of code
4. Since the source code is compiled at run-time, this may slow down the system.
5. It's much easier for other people to view the source code, which may compromise intellectual property.
1. An assembler directly translates assembly mnemonics that each represents an instruction in machine code.
CASE Software Tools
CASE stands for Computer-Aided Software Engineering, and refers to a type of software which helps developers to create systems and programs. It may include any of the following:
A database of all data types, sizes and names used in the program.
Helps the developer to create data flow diagrams or flowcharts.
Extra repositories of usable code, such as SDL.
Project Management Tools
This might include scheduling, task assignment, etc.
Allows multiple developers to easily work together and keep track of historical changes to the program, like Git
This helps the developer to quickly create screen designs, menus, etc without having to explicitly program them.
Augmented reality involves capturing the real world and overlaying information and graphics over it.
This is also known as haptic feedback, and it refers to vibrations or other sensations that the computer may respond with once the user has performed an action(i.e, pressing a key on a touchscreen keyboard)
System Design Validation
Systems Design Validation is the process of testing a system to ensure that the designed product meets the requirements.
1. This is generally carried out as early in the project as possible.
2. It often involves things like bringing in customers to get feedback on the user interface.
3. Methods such as Agile generally make use of multiple smaller design reviews than a single large one.
These are tools which are useful during the planning, analysis or design sections.
These are tools which are useful during the implementation, testing or maintenance sections.
These are tools which are useful in all sections of development.
Analysis and Planning Tools
Allows the developer to easily create diagrams and flowcharts which represent the flow of data within the program.
The developer can record and describe in detail any objectives or requirements for the system.
Allows multiple developers to easily work on the same program at the same time without causing merge conflicts. This is included in most Lower CASE tools.
Allows the developer to easily prototype system logic, code structure and user interface.
Allows bug reports to be filed, assigned and eventually marked as "solved".
This involves "taking over" the user's senses in order to make them feel as though they have entered an alternate(or virtual) reality.
1. This is usually done via goggles, controllers and earpieces.
2. Each eye piece in the goggles relays a slightly different image to give the impression of a 3D image
3. However, this may cause some users to feel nauseous
Intermediate code is code that is compiled but not read directly by the end user's CPU. It's interpreted by an intermediate virtual machine which can then interact with the CPU.
1. This is generally faster than interpreted languages, since the instructions aren't being rapidly compiled to machine code but rather fed to an abstract/virtual CPU.
2. The code is cross-platform, as long as the same VM can be installed on many platforms.
1. Spaces, comments etc are removed.
2. All keywords, constants and identifiers are replaced with more space-efficient tokens. This is known as tokenization.
3. A symbol table is generated which holds the addresses of variables and functions.
1. Determine whether the source code obeys the syntax rules of the language(i.e, variables can't start with numbers)
1. Check for semantic errors, like ensure that all variables have been declared, types are used correctly(not multiplying strings), etc.
Machine Code Generation
1. This involves generating the actual machine code for use by the CPU.
2. Allocate the use of registers to minimize slow memory access.
Optimization of Machine Code
1. Optimize the code by limiting the number of jumps it has to do, "unrolling" loops, etc.
Touch screens are screens that take in physical input from capacitive touch.
1. If selectable elements are too small or close together, it may be difficult to select with the average finger.
2. Touch screens are very intuitive, especially for small children.