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AP World History Unit 1 Cheat Sheet by

Overview of empires, comparisons, and differences.

Overall Summation

Song Dynasty in China continued a long period of techno­logical and cultural progress
Japan, unlike most other states, became more feudal as a result of weakened central systems
Western Europe relied on feudalism as well because of invasions from the northmen
In India, the Chola and Vijaya­nagar Kingdoms used trade to build states, while the Delhi Sultanate relied on conquest
The Aztecs, Incas, and Maya formed empires based on conquest and strong militaries and were centra­lised, unlike most other early American empires
Most of Europe excluding the West was less reliant on feudalism due to the emergence of stronger centra­lised states

Compar­isons in Religion

In Song and Tang Dynasty China, Confuc­ianism was tied heavily to the bureau­cracy
The Ghana Kingdom adopted Islam in order to strengthen relations with Muslim merchants
Since most of Europe comprised of small, politi­cally unstable nation­-st­ates, the Church acted as its unifying body
Conquest from Central Asian armies led to the rise of Islamic states such as the Mughal Empire and Delhi Sultanate in India
Cultural diffusion through exposure to Indian merchants brought Hinduism and Buddhism to Southeast Asia
Note that Hinduism and Islam experi­enced interm­ittent conflict because Hinduism was still the predom­inant religion of India while Islam was a faith imported by conquest and usually adopted for political reasons or to escape the caste system, i.e. Harihara and Bukka

The Role of Nomads

In Eurasia, the rise of the Mongol empire and their subsequent conquest of huge swathes of pastoral land opened commun­ication between China and Europe because of how much trade was expedited by the implem­ent­ation of new trade routes
Seljuk and Ottoman Turks built separate empires in the eastern Medite­rra­nean, but they did not endeavour to unify as the Mongols did
Turkic­-sp­eaking peoples from the Central Asian steppe region were integral to the formation of trade routes and the politics of Europe­/Asia
Following the establ­ishment of proper empires by the nomadic peoples, these would be the last intera­ctions between a pastoral wandering people and settled agrarian people
 

State-­Bui­lding and Trade

The introd­uction of bananas to West Africa and champa rice to China led to huge population booms that allowed complex develo­pments to take place
Paper manufa­cturing in China spread to Europe, resulting in higher literacy rates in Europe and the popula­riz­ation of print books
Song Dynasty China was able to sustain its massive population by trading silk, porcelain, paper, and other luxuries in exchange for huge profits
Most state-­bui­lding via trade during this time was quite slow as even though the Mongols had introduced trade routes, they devastated huge parts of Europe and Asia, and recovery was necessary before prosperity took hold. Additi­onally, much of Europe's contact with Asia and the Middle East occurred due to conflicts.

State-­Bui­lding Type 1: Reusing Land

What is the principle of state-­bui­lding by reusing land?
This is when land previously occupied by one state is utilised for the building of a new empire by a different group of people
What is an example of this type of state-­bui­lding?
The Delhi Sultanate used land previously occupied by the Gupta Empire to build their own state, and the Mamluks in Egypt used land previously held by the Abbasids

State-­Bui­lding Type 2: Reviving Empires

What is the principle of state-­bui­lding by reviving empires?
This is when new leadership continues or builds upon work done by its predec­essors by introd­ucing innova­tions
What are some examples of state-­bui­lding by reviving empires
The Song Dynasty was based upon the Han Dynasty with a tighter bureau­cracy and better trade, and the Holy Roman Empire was borrowing from the Roman Empire but Christ­ian­ized.

State-­Bui­lding Type 3: Synthesis

What is the principle of state-­bui­lding by synthesis of different tradit­ions?
This is when a state adopts foreign ideas but adapts them to its own people
What are some examples of state-­bui­lding by synthesis of different tradit­ions?
The Delhi Sultanate introd­ucing Arab/P­ersian customs to its largely Hindu popula­tion; Silla Korea adopting Chinese noble customs and religion
 

State-­Bui­lding Type 4: Scope

What is the principle of state-­bui­lding by expansion of scope?
This is when an existing state expands itself by means of conquest, trade, or religion.
What are some examples of state-­bui­lding by expansion of scope?
The Incas expanding via conquest of most of Mesoam­erica; the African kingdoms relying on trade to grow

State-­Bui­lding Type 4: Scope

What is the principle of state-­bui­lding by expansion of scope?
This is when an existing state expands itself by means of conquest, trade, or religion.
What are some examples of state-­bui­lding by expansion of scope?
The Incas expanding via conquest of most of Mesoam­erica; the African kingdoms relying on trade to grow
       
 

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