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AFM 480: Organizational Behaviour Cheat Sheet by

Cheat sheet for AFM 480: Introduction to Organizational Behaviour Midterm. Covers content from Weeks 1 through 5 (classes 1-10). Topics: Job performance, followership, organizational commitment, Emotional Intelligence (FlipU), Personality, Stress & Wellbeing, Job Satisfaction & Motivation

Job Perfor­mance

Global average employee engagement score: 15% in 2022
Perfor­mance management tools: Management by Objectives (MBOs), Behavi­ourally anchored rating scales (BARS), 360-degree feedback, forced rankings, social networking systems.
Low engagement (i.e. 28% less successful than average) costs economy $8.8 trillion is lost produc­tivity
Job perfor­mance evalua­tion: A "good place to start" = individual results + individual behaviours + contri­bution to the team + organi­zat­ional results
Platinum rule: "Do unto others as they'd have you do unto them."
Inverted U Theory = model proposed in 1908 by R.Yerkes & J.Dodson. Shows relati­onship between pressure and perfor­mance, with an optimal level of pressure for peak perfor­mance.
Job Perfor­mance = complex system with many factors, including:
4 key influe­ncers are 1) skill level
Ability, traits­/be­hav­iours, recrui­tment, management quality, culture, healthy work enviro­nment, clear purpos­e/p­riority of work, trust, good commun­ication
2) person­ality (i.e. creative, adaptive)
Behavi­our­-fo­cused evalua­tion: shouldn't over-e­mphasis results, because employee's perfor­mance contribute to the company many more nuanced ways.
3) trait anxiety (i.e. self confid­ence)
Result­s-only focus leads to poor culture, indivi­dua­listic behaviour, compet­iti­veness over collab­ora­tion, social underm­ining (i.e. sabotage co-wor­kers' reputa­tions), breach of ethics (i.e. fraud)
4) task complexity (simple tasks can be done under high pressure but complex tasks require low pressure)
Results are affected by factors outside of the employee's controls (i.e. stock price incent­ives, etc.). It only considers a point-­in-time rather than future improv­ement.
3 Categories of Job Behavi­ours:
1) Task perfor­mance - stuff in the job descri­ption
2) Citize­nship behaviours - stuff initiated above job requir­ements (organ­iza­tional or interp­ers­onal)
3) Counte­rpr­odu­ctive behaviours - stuff you are not supposed to do (produ­ction, property, political deviance and personal aggres­sion)


Leadership is overgl­orified in society
Strong follow­ership practices
White Paper on Follow­ership (A&F industry) - found that follow­ership had a positive impact on 1) indivi­duals, 2) leaders, and 3) team and organi­zations
1. Keep leader well-i­nformed
Individual Impact:
2. Commun­icate to stimulate right leadership action
a) Emotional benefit - cop with work/e­nga­gement, confidence accepting new roles
3. Provide useful­/timely decision support
b) Develo­pment benefit - self-a­war­eness, unders­tanding the workplace
4. Work hard to make change work
b) Career benefits - promot­ions, compen­sation, opport­unities
5. Be engaged
Leader Impact:
6. Drive your own develo­pment
a) More effective, do more, try more things
7. Provide rational for your opinio­ns/­ideas
b) Improved develo­pment and success with better feedba­ck/­cri­tique from followers
Team Impact:
c) Improved interp­ersonal outcomes - more connec­tivity and trust
a) leadership becomes a shared role
b) greater agilit­y/c­rea­tivity
c) greater collab­oration

Empathic Listening

Empathic listening: Offering time, attention, support, encour­agement to build/­mai­ntain trust/­ope­nness
Empathic listening process:
1. No distra­ctions
2. Calm/c­omf­ortable demeaner
3. "You now have my undivided attent­ion­"
4. Ask "­sta­rte­r" question
5. Be encour­aging (say "I unders­tan­d")
6. Don't rush to action (say " What else?")
7. Tailor response to personal needs (ask "How can I support you?")
Types of behaviours to handle stress:
1. Reduce source of stress: talk to someone to reduce people­/role confli­ct/­amb­iguity, set bounda­ries, ask for help
2. Cope with stress: find friend at work, talk to friend­/pr­ofe­ssi­onal, engage in healthy lifestyle, practice reframing and gratitude.
Ex. CEO not checking his phone in the morning

Organi­zat­ional Commitment

Job hopping - 2022 51% of people stay at their job for less than 2 years (33% in 2000)
Organi­zat­ional commit­ment: employees desire to remain a member of the organi­zation (want, need, obliga­tion)
Employee turnover is expenses -> job posting, advert­ising, onboar­ding, training
Three types of commit­ment:
Types of employee withdr­awal:
a) Affective (emotion) staying because you want to
a) Psycho­logical - daydre­aming, looking busy, cyberl­oafing (do non-work activity on company time), moonli­ghting (working another job on company time)
b) Contin­uance (cost): staying because you need to (due for promotion, good salary)
Cyclical relati­onship: Employees are engaged to leaders who are committed to them
c) Normative (oblig­ation): e.g. company invested in you, help you out
Gallup's Survey: Perceived engagement questions work because it measures how much employees think the company cares about them
Ways companies can create organi­zat­ional commit­ment: career enrichment programs, training & develo­pment, mentor­ship, team building, sponso­rships

Common Sources of Stress

KnoWonder, Job Satisf­action, & Motivation

KnoWonder: tools for unders­tanding & clarifying things. Make lists of what you know & what you wonder. Focus on making increm­ental points.
Serena Williams - "no matter what, you have to show up - so why not compet­e?"
Things to know about motiva­tion:
1. Money is not the greatest motivator - happiness flatlines at $150,000
2. Driving toward right goals - regularly check-in on what your goals are
3. Identity and self-worth are NOT tied to job perfor­mance
4. Keep the flame alive!
5. Don't settle for the "good life" ("good life" = momentary pleasure, "­engaged life" = satisf­action from getting into "­flo­w", "­mea­ningful life" = long-l­asting and fulfil­ling)
6. Ask people what motivates them - don't assume
7. Difference between people is bigger than differ­ences in culture
8. Don't be stingy in leadership role
9. Equity is the strongest de-mot­ivator (i.e. when others get prefer­ential treatment)


Person­ality: structures and propen­sities inside a person that explain their patterns of thought, emotion, and behaviour
Locus of control: external of internal. Too little internal = feel powerless. Too much = don't recognize privilege.
1. Consci­ent­iou­sness - biggest affect on job perfor­mance. Strong desire to accomplish tasks/­goals. Too little = lazy, irresp­ons­ibile. Too much = perfec­tio­nist, burnout.
Practical takewa­ways:
2. Agreea­bleness - commun­ication striving, beneficial in service jobs. Too little = critical, rude. Too much = push over, people pleaser.
1. unders­tanding "big 5" helps us be less judgmental of others
3. Neurot­icism - second most important to job perfor­mance. Related to locus of control (high level = external loc)
2. Inverted U - even "­goo­d" traits can be bad in excess
4. Openness - a.k.a inquis­iti­ven­ess­/cu­ltured. Good for jobs that are creative (creat­ivity can be learned)
3. Person­ality doesn't define you/pr­event you from achieving your goals
5. Extrav­ersion - associated with leaders, but recent trend of CEOs being introv­erted

Stress & Wellbeing

Stress: psycho­logical response to demands where there is something at stake for the indivi­dual, coping with demands exceeds the person's capaci­ty/­res­ources
Wellbeing: All things that are important to us, what we think about, how we experience life
5 elements of wellbeing: career, social, financial, community, and physical
Associated with job satisf­action/ stability and health
High employee wellbeing = less burnout, higher engage­ment, produc­tivity, and profit­ability
How to reduce stress­/im­prove wellbeing: work-life balance, compen­sation, training, flexib­ility, time-off, health & wellness


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