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Psychology Exam 1 Cheat Sheet by

PSYC330 cheat sheet assignment

Who Commits Crime?

Chronic offenders commit majority of crime
Minority groups overre­pre­sented
Ages 20-30
Males

Types of Crime Data

Victim of crime surveys
Police records
Court statistics
Prison statistics
Offender surveys

Crimin­olo­gical Theories of Crime

Strain Theory
Labelling Theory
Subcul­tural Theory
Feelings of social isolation ("an­omi­e")
Stigma associated with negative label
Lower class commun­ities have more criminally inclined values

Psycho­logical Theories of Crime

Psycho­dynamic Theory
Control Theory
Social Control Theory
Differ­ential Associ­ation Theory
Criminal behavior is socialised out during upbringing
Poor parenting causes people to have low self-c­ontrol
Strength of positive attach­ments to beliefs and relati­onships
Pro criminal vs Pro social learning
Problems during develo­pment can lead to criminal behavior
Combined with negative emotional temper­ament
Attach­ment, Commit­ment, Involv­ement, and Belief
Learned in peer groups

GPCSL

Combin­ation of:
Criminal history
Substance abuse
Antisocial person­ality
Criminal peers

PTSD

Categories of Symptoms:
Intrusion
Avoidance
Changes in mood and cognition
Changes in arousal

Outcomes of Trauma

cPTSD
BPD
Dissoc­iation
Psychosis
Severe and long-term interp­ersonal trauma
Begins in early adulthood
Feeling of people and objects being unreal (derea­lis­ation)
Link between trauma from early childhood and psychosis
Difficulty with emotional regula­tion, attention, attach­ment, self-p­erc­eption
Difficulty with self-c­oncept, relati­ons­hips, self-harm behaviors, emotional regulation
Feeling of seeing yourself from outside of your body (deper­son­ali­zation)
Halluc­ina­tions and paranoia

Trauma Spectrum

Impersonal Trauma
Personal Trauma
Attachment Trauma
Situat­ional
Intent­ional
Relational
Natural disaster, serious illness
Assault, harassment
Abuse, neglect

Trauma­-In­formed Care

4 R's
Realize
Trauma ≠ PTSD
Recognize
Trauma lens
Respond
Strengths and evidence based approach
Resist
Vicarious trauma and retrau­mat­ization

Treatment for Trauma

Eye Movement Desens­iti­sation and Reproc­essing (EMDR)
Replaces negative emotions related to a traumatic event
Trauma Focuse­d-C­ogn­itive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)
Child and parent therapy, teaches coping skills
Dialec­tical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
Designed for indivi­duals who partic­ipate in self-h­arming behaviors
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
Therapy based on mindfu­lness
Mental­isa­tio­n-based Therapy (MBT)
Uses mental­izing to improve sense of self
Schema Therapy
Combines features of several psycho­the­rapies

Cycle of Abuse

Barriers for Victims

Re-tra­uma­tis­ation:
can occur when reporting a crime by having to relive the trauma through questi­oning or during the trial
can occur during therapy, mediated by a strong sense of trust between the client and therapist and a trauma based approach
 

Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony

Change blindness
Selective attention
Inatte­ntional blindness
Flashbulb memory
Failure to notice change in visual field
Focus on specific stimuli while ignoring other inform­ation
Failure to notice an unexpected stimuli
Detailed and vivid, but often not accurate, memory of an emotional event

Accuracy of Line-Ups

Double blind
Foils
Uncons­cious transf­erence
Neither eyewitness nor lineup admini­strator know who the suspect is
Other potential suspects in lineup
Miside­nti­fic­ation of an innocent person

False Confes­sions

Voluntary
Compliant
Intern­alised
To gain fame or notoriety or to protect other people
To escape stressful interr­ogation
Individual is manipu­lated by police interr­ogation to believe they are guilty
Individual does not understand what confessing will result in (underage)
Provide confession in exchange for leniency
Instill false memories in innocent person

Polygraph

Use
Limita­tions
Measures physio­logical changes in the body
physio­logical responses can be affected by other things

Brain Finger­pri­nting

Used to detect whether an individual has inform­ation related to a crime stored in their brain
Above 90% accuracy
Not extens­ively tested in real-world scenarios

Police Interview Styles

Reid Model
PEACE
Mr. Big
TEDS
Psycho­logical manipu­lation, fabricated evidence, aggression
Build trust between interv­iewer and interv­iewee
Officers go undercover to secretly obtain confes­sions
Tell, Explain, Describe, Show

Courtroom Decision Making

Cognitive Experi­mental Self Theory
Dangerous Decision Theory
Jurors take into account factors that do not relate to the crime, such as attrac­tiv­eness and race, when determ­ining innocence or guilt
1. Judge makes decision on the credib­ility of a witness
Example: attractive defendants are treated more leniently
2. Any evidence presented that supports the initial assessment is overva­lued, any contra­dictory evidence is underv­alued
Example: black defendants receive harsher sentences
3. Initial assessment continues to be believed

Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Profiling

Top-Down
Bottom-Up
Developed from patterns seen in the motives, person­ality, behaviors, and crimes of 36 serial killers interv­iewed by FBI
Uses quanti­tative data to identify patterns in the behavior of an offender
Organised offender
Geographic profiling
Disorg­anised offender
Difficult to quanti­tat­ively organise aspects of crime
Does not use empirical evidence
Consis­tency of offenders is largely unknown

Offender Risk Assessment

Dynamic risk factors
Static risk factors
Can be changed
Cannot be changed
Criminal history
Age
Substance abuse
History of abuse
Antisocial person­ality
Age of first offense
Procri­minal peer group
Assigned Sex

Risk Assessment for Male Sexual Offenders

Interv­iewing Children

Accurate
Inaccurate
Free recall
Leading questions
Cued invita­tions
Yes/No questions
 

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