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Psychology Exam 1 Cheat Sheet by

PSYC330 cheat sheet assignment

Who Commits Crime?

Chronic offenders commit majority of crime
Minority groups overre­pre­sented
Ages 20-30

Types of Crime Data

Victim of crime surveys
Police records
Court statistics
Prison statistics
Offender surveys

Crimin­olo­gical Theories of Crime

Strain Theory
Labelling Theory
Subcul­tural Theory
Feelings of social isolation ("an­omi­e")
Stigma associated with negative label
Lower class commun­ities have more criminally inclined values

Psycho­logical Theories of Crime

Psycho­dynamic Theory
Control Theory
Social Control Theory
Differ­ential Associ­ation Theory
Criminal behavior is socialised out during upbringing
Poor parenting causes people to have low self-c­ontrol
Strength of positive attach­ments to beliefs and relati­onships
Pro criminal vs Pro social learning
Problems during develo­pment can lead to criminal behavior
Combined with negative emotional temper­ament
Attach­ment, Commit­ment, Involv­ement, and Belief
Learned in peer groups


Combin­ation of:
Criminal history
Substance abuse
Antisocial person­ality
Criminal peers


Categories of Symptoms:
Changes in mood and cognition
Changes in arousal

Outcomes of Trauma

Severe and long-term interp­ersonal trauma
Begins in early adulthood
Feeling of people and objects being unreal (derea­lis­ation)
Link between trauma from early childhood and psychosis
Difficulty with emotional regula­tion, attention, attach­ment, self-p­erc­eption
Difficulty with self-c­oncept, relati­ons­hips, self-harm behaviors, emotional regulation
Feeling of seeing yourself from outside of your body (deper­son­ali­zation)
Halluc­ina­tions and paranoia

Trauma Spectrum

Impersonal Trauma
Personal Trauma
Attachment Trauma
Natural disaster, serious illness
Assault, harassment
Abuse, neglect

Trauma­-In­formed Care

4 R's
Trauma ≠ PTSD
Trauma lens
Strengths and evidence based approach
Vicarious trauma and retrau­mat­ization

Treatment for Trauma

Eye Movement Desens­iti­sation and Reproc­essing (EMDR)
Replaces negative emotions related to a traumatic event
Trauma Focuse­d-C­ogn­itive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)
Child and parent therapy, teaches coping skills
Dialec­tical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
Designed for indivi­duals who partic­ipate in self-h­arming behaviors
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
Therapy based on mindfu­lness
Mental­isa­tio­n-based Therapy (MBT)
Uses mental­izing to improve sense of self
Schema Therapy
Combines features of several psycho­the­rapies

Cycle of Abuse

Barriers for Victims

can occur when reporting a crime by having to relive the trauma through questi­oning or during the trial
can occur during therapy, mediated by a strong sense of trust between the client and therapist and a trauma based approach

Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony

Change blindness
Selective attention
Inatte­ntional blindness
Flashbulb memory
Failure to notice change in visual field
Focus on specific stimuli while ignoring other inform­ation
Failure to notice an unexpected stimuli
Detailed and vivid, but often not accurate, memory of an emotional event

Accuracy of Line-Ups

Double blind
Uncons­cious transf­erence
Neither eyewitness nor lineup admini­strator know who the suspect is
Other potential suspects in lineup
Miside­nti­fic­ation of an innocent person

False Confes­sions

To gain fame or notoriety or to protect other people
To escape stressful interr­ogation
Individual is manipu­lated by police interr­ogation to believe they are guilty
Individual does not understand what confessing will result in (underage)
Provide confession in exchange for leniency
Instill false memories in innocent person


Measures physio­logical changes in the body
physio­logical responses can be affected by other things

Brain Finger­pri­nting

Used to detect whether an individual has inform­ation related to a crime stored in their brain
Above 90% accuracy
Not extens­ively tested in real-world scenarios

Police Interview Styles

Reid Model
Mr. Big
Psycho­logical manipu­lation, fabricated evidence, aggression
Build trust between interv­iewer and interv­iewee
Officers go undercover to secretly obtain confes­sions
Tell, Explain, Describe, Show

Courtroom Decision Making

Cognitive Experi­mental Self Theory
Dangerous Decision Theory
Jurors take into account factors that do not relate to the crime, such as attrac­tiv­eness and race, when determ­ining innocence or guilt
1. Judge makes decision on the credib­ility of a witness
Example: attractive defendants are treated more leniently
2. Any evidence presented that supports the initial assessment is overva­lued, any contra­dictory evidence is underv­alued
Example: black defendants receive harsher sentences
3. Initial assessment continues to be believed

Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Profiling

Developed from patterns seen in the motives, person­ality, behaviors, and crimes of 36 serial killers interv­iewed by FBI
Uses quanti­tative data to identify patterns in the behavior of an offender
Organised offender
Geographic profiling
Disorg­anised offender
Difficult to quanti­tat­ively organise aspects of crime
Does not use empirical evidence
Consis­tency of offenders is largely unknown

Offender Risk Assessment

Dynamic risk factors
Static risk factors
Can be changed
Cannot be changed
Criminal history
Substance abuse
History of abuse
Antisocial person­ality
Age of first offense
Procri­minal peer group
Assigned Sex

Risk Assessment for Male Sexual Offenders

Interv­iewing Children

Free recall
Leading questions
Cued invita­tions
Yes/No questions


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