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Nitrofurantoin Cheat Sheet by

Urinary Tract Antiseptics

Urinary Tract Antise­ptics

Prototype Med
Nitrof­ura­ntoin
Other Meds
Methen­amine
ACTION : Broad spectrum urinary antiseptic with bacter­ios­tatic and bacter­icidal action. It injures bacteria by damaging DNA.

Ther­apeutic Uses

Acute UTIs
Prophy­laxis for recurrent lower UTIs

Nursing Interv­ent­ions

Monito­r/R­eport GI Symptoms (may reduce or change)
Monito­r/R­eport Respir­atory Symptoms (may discon­tinue)
Monito­r/R­eport for Neuropathy
Monitor lab values of blood components
Monitor I&O and bowel function

Patient Education

Take with food or milk
Report dyspne­a/f­eve­r/cough to provider
Report numbne­ss/­tin­gli­ng/­wea­kness of extrem­ities
Report fatigu­e/b­rui­sin­g/r­epeated infections to provider
Swallow liquid suspension
Dilute liquid suspension
Rinse mouth after taking suspension

Intera­ctions

Concurrent use with antacids decrease absorption
Probenecid increases the chance of toxicity
Avoid drugs with potential for pulmonary toxicity
 

Adverse Drug Reacti­ons

Nausea­/Vo­mit­ing­/Di­arrhea
Acute: Chills­/Fe­ver­/Cough (2-4 days)
Subacute: Shortness of breath (weeks to months)
Permanent peripheral neuropathy
Anemia­/He­molytic Anemia­/Th­rom­boc­yto­pen­ia/­Neu­tro­penia
Tooth Staining (liquid suspen­sion)
Brown Urine (harmless)
Dizzin­ess­/Dr­ows­ine­ss/­Hea­dache
Photos­ens­itivity
Pulmonary Distress

Admini­str­ation

Oral Capsules (do not crush or chew)
Macrod­antin, Macrobid
Liquid Suspension (dilute in milk or juice)
Furadantin
Rinse mouth after taking liquid suspension

Contra­ind­ica­tions

Allergy to nitrof­ura­ntoin
Impaired kidney function
History of jaundice caused by gallbl­adder disease
Pregnancy at more than 38 weeks’ gestation
During labor or delivery, lactating, infants -1 month

Precau­tions

Asthma, Liver/­Kidney disease
Electr­olyte Imbalance
Vitamin B12 deficiency

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