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Chem20 Solutions Cheat Sheet by

Alberta Chemistry 20 Chemistry 20 AP Unit 4: Solutions

Defini­tions

Dissociation
when highly soluble ionic compounds break apart/­dis­sociate into their components in solutions
Dissolving
when the substance doesn't break apart into its components
Ionization
the process by which an atom or molecule acquires a charge by gaining or losing electrons
Electr­olyte
the aqueous solution conducts electr­icity, highly soluble ionic hydroxides (bases) and acids (molec­ular)
Non-Electrolyte
the aqueous solutions doesn't conduct electr­icity, most molecular compounds (except acids)

Bonds & Energy

Breaking bonds absorbs energy & forming new bonds releases energy
Energy is absorbed to break ionic bonds and overcome the interm­ole­cular forces among the water molecules
Energy is released to form bonds between water and ions

Types of Concen­tration

Percent volume by volume (%V/V)
generally when a liquid is dissolved in a liquid
Percent weight by volume (%W/V)
generally when a solid is dissolved in a liquid
Percent weight by weight (%W/W)
generally a solid in solid
Parts per million (ppm)
1ppm = 1mg/kg (for dilute aqueous solutions, 1ppm = 1mg/1L)
Amount concentration (M)
moles/L
 

Ion Concen­tration

The dissoc­iation or ionization equations for compounds allows you to determine the amount concen­tration of either the ions or the compounds in solution
The ion concen­tration is always equal to a whole number multiple of the compound concen­tration (the coeffi­cient in the chemical equation)

Solubility

Satu­rat­ed: maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent as a specific temper­ature
Unsa­tur­ated: solution can dissolve more solute
Super Satura­ted: can dissolve more with an increase in temper­ature

Solubility Variables of Gases

Temperature
as temper­ature increases, the solubility of a gas decreases
Pressure
the solubility of a gas increases as the partial pressure of the gas above a solution increase

Solubility Variables of Liquids & Solids

Temperature
solubility increases with temper­ature
Pressure
very little effect on the solubility of liquids and gases
 

Techniques to Separate Solutions

Chro­mat­ogr­aphy: a technique that can be used to separate out, most commonly, different coloured solutes (pigments) in a solutions
Dist­ill­ati­on: a technique use to separate solutions of 2 or more liquids by using their differ­ential boiling points
Frac­tional Distil­lat­ion: when multiple liquids (fract­ions) are mixed in a solution or the boiling points are very similar, they use many different conden­sation plates to condense and re-vap­orize to allow a more pure solution to rise through the column

Dynamic Equili­brium

Dynamic Equilibrium: both dissolving and crystallizing out of solution are occurring at the same rate which maintains a balance in the solution

Beer-L­ambert Law

Beer­-La­mbert Law: a linear relati­onship between the absorbance and the concen­tra­tion, molar absorption coeffi­cient and optical coeffi­cient of a solution
           
 

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