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Chem20 Acids & Bases Cheat Sheet by

Alberta Chemistry 20 Acids & Bases

Properties of Acids

Conducts electr­icity
Tastes sour
Neutra­lizes bases
Reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas
pH between 0-7
Corrodes metals

Strong Acids vs Weak Acids

Reacts completely (>99%) with water to produce a high concen­tration of hydronium ions
Reacts incomp­letely with water (<50%) to form relatively few hydronium ions
Low pH
Relatively high pH
High electrical conduc­tivity
Relatively low conduc­tivity
High rate of reaction with metals and carbonates
Low rate of reaction with active metals and carbonates

Properties of Bases

Conducts electr­icity
Tastes bitter
Neutra­lizes acids
pH between 7-14
Dissolves grease
Feels slippe­ry/­soapy

Strong Bases vs Weak Bases

Dissoc­iates completely (>99%)
Reacts partially with water (<50%)
High pH (closer to 14)
Lower pH (closer to 8)
Faster reaction rate
Slower reaction rate
High conduc­tivity
Low conduc­tivity
 

Classical Naming of Acids

Ending in -ide
hydro_­____ic acid
Ending in -ate
_____ic acid
Ending in -ite
_____ous acid

Classical Naming of Bases

Generally ionic hydroxides
Use the standard ionic naming (NaOH is sodium hydroxide)

Bronst­ed-­Lowry Acid-Base Concept

Bronst­ed-­Lowry Acid: a proton donor
Bronst­ed-­Lowry Base: a proton acceptor

Neutra­liz­ation

Neutra­liz­ation: a type of double replac­ement between an acid and a base

Amphoteric Substances

Amphoteric Substa­nces: substances that can react as an acid or as a base

pH Chart

 

Conjugate Acids & Bases

In a proton transfer reaction at equili­brium, both forward and reverse reactions involve Bronst­ed-­Lowrey acids and bases
Conjugate Acids/­Bases: a pair on substances with formulas that differ only by a proton

Monoprotic & Polyprotic Acids

Monoprotic Acids: only have one acidic hydrogen ion in their compound formula and can react only once with water to produce hydronium ions
- Most strong acids and some weak acids are monoprotic acids
- Ex. Monoprotic Acids: HCl and HCN
Polyprotic Acids: contain more than one acidic hydrogen in their compound formula and can react more than once with water
- Generally weak acids whose reaction with water decreases with each successive step
- Exception is sulfuric acid because the first reaction is essent­ially complete
- Ex. Polyprotic Acid: H3PO4

Monoprotic & Polyprotic Bases

Monoprotic Bases: can react with water only once to produce hydroxide ions
- Ex. CH3COO-
Polyprotic Bases: weak bases whose reaction with water decreases with each successive step
- Ex. CO3 2-
       
 

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