What is 'cyber security'?
Methods and technologies designed to protect networks, computers and data from attack, damage and unauthorised access.
These are easily guessed or found through brute force decryption.
Misconfigured access rights
This means that systems/files that should be secure can be accessed by other users.
Removable media (e.g. USBs)
This can bypass security measures (like firewalls), so malware can be installed more easily.
Software that has not been patched is vulnerable to attackers.
In addition to this, malicious code and social engineering techniques also pose threats.
Methods of Protection
Identity authentication: biometric, passwords, two-step authentication
CAPTCHA (human or robot test)
Anti-Virus software (keep up-to-date)
Updating software and installing patches
The process of manipulating people into undertaking certain actions or disclosing confidential information.
Blagging or Pretexting
Creating a fictional scenario in order to obtain a user’s personal information, then using this information for malicious purposes.
Contacting users (usually through fraudulent emails that mimic a legitimate organisations) to cause users to disclose personal information (e.g. usernames, passwords)
Setting up and guiding users to a bogus website that is visually identical to a legitimate one, allowing the attacker to gain login details.
Shouldering or Shoulder surfing
Spying’ on people, usually while they’re logging in to accounts or using an ATM, to find sensitive information (e.g. passwords, PINs).
What is penetration testing?
Attempting to gain access to resources without knowledge of login details and other normal means of access, in order to test defences.
What is the difference between black-box and white-box penetration testing?
White-box penetration is where the tester already has some knowledge of the target system. This simulates an attack by a malicious insider. Black-box is where they have no prior knowledge. This simulates external hacking or cyber warfare.
Dangerous or intrusive software.
Malicious program that duplicates itself once inside a computer or network.
A malicious program disguised as a legitimate one to trick users into installing it.
Software enabling attackers to obtain information about another's computer activities by transmitting data from their hard drive.
Software that automatically displays advertisments when a user is online, generating revenue for the attacker.