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STP=1a­tm,­0de­grees celsius

Standard Temper­ature and Pressure

1 mol

1mol=6.02­x10­^23­par­ticles X=molar mass(g) X

particles {
atoms(­single elements),
molecu­les(two or more non metals),
formulas units(two or more non metals­)(f.u)
ions(m­ine­rals, electr­oly­tes­,ch­arged particles


Conver­sion: inch to mm


Conver­sion: atm to mmHg


Things to know about mols

1mol=22.4L (only for gases)

Constants for Energy

h= 6.63x10-34J*s
c=3x108 m/s
h is Planck's Constant
c is speed of light

electron config­uration

2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f
6s 6p 6d 6f
7s 7p 7d 7f

s=2 p=6 d=10 f=14

Rules for Sig Figs

To determine the number of signif­icant figures in a number use the following 3 rules:

1.Non-zero digits are always signif­icant

2.Any zeros between two signif­icant digits are signif­icant

3.A final zero or trailing zeros in the decimal portion ONLY are signif­icant

Example: .500 or .632000 the zeros are signif­icant

.006 or .000968 the zeros are NOT signif­icant

For addition and subtra­ction use the following rules:

1.Count the number of signif­icant figures in the decimal portion ONLY of each number in the problem

2.Add or subtract in the normal fashion

3.Your final answer may have no more signif­icant figures to the right of the decimal than the LEAST number of signif­icant figures in any number in the problem.

For multip­lic­ation and division use the following rule:

1.The LEAST number of signif­icant figures in any number of the problem determines the number of signif­icant figures in the answer. (You are now looking at the entire number, not just the decimal portion)
This means you have to be able to recognize signif­icant figures in order to use this rule

Example: 5.26 has 3 signif­icant figures

6.1 has 2 signif­icant figures

No think math method? for conversion

#unit1 x #unit(­con­verting to) / #unit1


cancel like units

then multiple and divide then you get your answer with new units


millimeter of mercur­y-mmHg
Pounds per square inch-psi

Celsius to Kelvin


The 7 Diatomic Elements

Hydrogen (H2)
Nitrogen (N2)
Oxygen (O2)
Fluorine (F2)
Chlorine (Cl2)
Iodine (I2)
Bromine (Br2)

Useful things to know about gases

1. Gas particles are much farther apart from each other than liquid and solid particles
2. Gases are fluids, fluids are any substance that can flow
3. Gases have low density
4. Gases are highly compre­ssible
5. Gases completely fill a container
6. Kinetic molecular theory
*model used to predict gas behavior
*constant random motion, increasing temp, increases motion
7. Interm­ole­cular forces­(at­tra­ctive forces) are very weak or nonexi­stent between gas particles

number prefixes


mole of a photon


Multiply this exactly how this is once you get your V and you will get your mole of a photon for the problem.

Energy Conver­sions


Energy Formulas

C=VA (A is lambda)
E is energy
V is frequency
A is lambda

Combined gas Law


The Combined Gas Law is useful when: Given two pressures, volumes, or temper­atures and asked for an unknown pressure, volume, or temp. Whenever it gives you conditions for one gas, and asks for conditions of another gas, you're most likely going to use this Law.

Charle's law

v1/t1 = v2/t2

Since pressure is kept constant, the only variable that is manipu­lated is temper­ature. This means that we can use Charles's law in order to compare volume and temper­ature. Since volume and temper­ature are on opposite sides of the ideal gas law, they are directly propor­tional to one another.

Ideal gas Law


n=# of mols
R= 0.0821 atm x L / mol x K ---Always divide the numbers underneath

Boyles law

P1V1 = P2V2

Key Points:

~According to Boyle’s Law, an inverse relati­onship exists between pressure and volume.

~Boyle’s Law holds true only if the number of molecules (n) and the temper­ature (T) are both constant.

~Boyle’s Law is used to predict the result of introd­ucing a change in volume and pressure only, and only to the initial state of a fixed quantity of gas.

~The relati­onship for Boyle’s Law can be expressed as follows: P1V1 = P2V2, where P1 and V1 are the initial pressure and volume values, and P2 and V2 are the values of the pressure and volume of the gas after change.

Ideal gas Law


n=# of mols
R= 0.0821 atm x L / mol x K ---Always divide the numbers underneath

Gay-lusacs law

p1/t1 = p2/t2

Gay-Lu­ssac's law is a form of the ideal gas law in which gas volume is kept constant.

When volume is held constant, pressure of a gas is directly propor­tional to its temper­ature.

The usual equations for Gay-Lu­ssac's law are P/T = constant or Pi/Ti = Pf/Tf.


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