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General Drug info regarding Insulin

Action

Promotes cellular uptake of glucose
Converts glucose into glycogen
Stops release of fats
Stops release of fats
Stops glucon­eog­enesis
Starts producing glycogen & fat
Converts amino acids into proteins
Converts fatty acids into trigly­cerides
Moves Potassium into cells

Indication

Type 1, 2, or gestat­ional diabetes
(DOC in pregnancy due to limited adverse effects and inability to cross placenta)

Cautions

Elderly
Renal patients b/c insulin can accumulate

Contra­ind­ica­tions

hold medication if blood glucose <50
 

Routes of Admini­str­ation

Timing:
varies depending on type of insulin
SubQ
all types
IV/IM
only regular insulin (short acting)
Insulin pump
only rapid acting
Inhaled
only rapid acting

Admini­str­ation Timing Guide

Types
Onset
Peak
Duration
Rapid
10-20 min
0.5-2 hr.
3-5 hr
Short
30-60 min
2.5 hr
6-12 hr
Interm­ediate
1-1.5 hr
4-14 hr
24 hr
Long-A­cting
60-70 min
None
24 hr

Patient Education

Educated about sick day rules
Educated about long-term compli­cations of diabetes
Rotate admini­str­ation sites to prevent lipody­strophy
Life-long treatment (T1D)
Wear a medical alert bracelet
Store unopened insulin in fridge
Discard insulin after 30 days of use
 

Drug Intera­ctions

Beta Blockers
mask signs of hypogl­ycemia
Steroids
decrease effect­iveness of insulin
Alcohol
Can cause increased or decreased blood glucose levels
MAOIs
Thiazide

Adverse Effects

Hypogl­ycemia
Lipody­strophy
Hypoka­lemia
DKA
 

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