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Python F-Strings Basics Cheat Sheet by

Contains formulas, tables, and examples showing patterns and options, with the exception of number formatting, for Python's Formatted String Literals -- i.e., F-Strings.

What are F-Strings?

What are F-Strings?
Strings prefixed with 'f' or 'F' and containing Python expres­​sions inside curly braces for evaluation at run time. They are more formally known as "­for­matted string litera­ls" and were introduced with Python 3.6.
How are F-Strings Useful?
They provide a concise, readable way to include the value of a Python expres­​sion with formatting control inside strings.
What Are Other Ways to Format Strings in Python?­rmat(): the string format() method
%-form­atting: old string formatting using the string modulo­/pe­rcent operator %
string.Te­mplate: template class of the string module

F-String Template

f" text {replacement_field} text ... "
Inside the quotes the f-string consists of two kinds of parts: (1) regular string literals, i.e., text, and (2) replac­ement fields containing Python expres­sions for evaluation along with formatting control.
Double quotes are used in this repres­ent­ative pattern but single or triple quotes could also be used.
F-strings may consist of just a replac­ement field:

Replac­ement Field

{f-expression = !conversion:format_specifier}
A replac­ement field is signaled by a pair of curly braces: { }
A replac­ement field consists of an expression with optional debugging mode (=), type conversion (!), and format specif­ication (:).
Substi­tuting into the f-string template:

f" text {f-exp­ression = !conve­rsi­on:­for­mat­_sp­eci­fier} text ... "

Conversion Field Options

calls str() on the value of the f-expr­ession
calls repr() on the value of the f-expr­ession
calls ascii() on the value of the f-expr­ession
str() returns string value repres­ent­ations that are human readable for the end user.
repr() returns string value repres­ent­ations for the interp­reter and develo­pers.
!s, !r, !a conver­sions are redundant since arbitrary expres­sions are allowed in the replac­ement fields; so, one could just as easily replace !r by using repr() on the f-expr­ession and similarly for the others.

Examples: Conversion Field

x, name = 'cat', 'Sophia'
# explicitly using the string conversion !s (the default)
f"The black {x!s}"
'The black cat'
# using the string conversion !r adds quotes
f"The black {x!r}"
"The black 'cat'"
f"Her name is {name!­r}."­
"Her name is 'Sophi­a'."­
# !r is equivalent to using repr() on the expression
f"The black {repr(­x)}­"
"The black 'cat'"

Format Specifier

:fill align sign # 0 width sep .precision type
Brief Summary of the Format Specif­ication Mini-L­anguage

fill : the padding character
align : alignment of text within the space
sign : how + and - are used preceding numbers
# : alternate presen­tation format for some number types
0 : sign-a­ware, zero-p­adding on numbers
width : the minimum total field width
sep : the separator character for numbers (',' or '_')
.precision : determines how many digits displayed for floats;
            maximum field width for strings
type : the type of presen­tation to use based on data type
Note: sign, #, 0, sep, precision, and type are of particular interest for number formatting. For inform­ation about number format­ting, see my cheatsheet Python F-Strings Number Formatting.

Format Specifier: Options

string: s
number: n
' '
integer: d, b, o, x, X, c
float: e, E, f, F, g, G, %

String Presen­tation Type

simplified form: f" text {f-exp­res­sio­n:type} text ..."
String format. This is the default type for strings and may be omitted.
Same as s
Where the value of the f-expr­ession is a string, the replac­ement field could make explicit the string presen­tation type {f-exp­res­sion:s} but :s can be omitted since this is the default for strings.
.precision can be used with strings to enforce a maximum field width: {f-exp­res­sio­n:.p­re­cision}

Examples: Simple F-Strings

x = 'cat'
# f-expr­ession can be a string
f"The black {'cat'­}"
'The black cat'
# f-expr­ession can be a variable with a string value
f"The black {x}"
'The black cat'
# error when neither a string nor a defined variable
f"The black {cat}"
# including f-string in string concat­enation
'The ' 'black ' f"{x­}"
'The black cat'
# including f-string in string concat­enation
'The ' + 'black ' + f"{x­}"
'The black cat'
# f-strings can use single, double, or triple quotes
f'The ' f"black " f'''cat'''
'The black cat'
# text inside the f-string must contain a different kind of quotes than the outer quotes
f'The 'black' cat'
# f-expr­essions need different quotes than the outer quotes
f'The black {'cat'}'
# Or, f-expr­essions can use a variable to represent the string
f'The black {x}'
'The black cat'
# for debugging, an equal sign can be used after an f-expr­ession to display the expression text and its value
f"The black {x=}"
"The black x='cat­'"
# backslash escapes can be used in text
f"The black \'cat­\'"
"The black 'cat'"
# doubled curly braces for a single curly brace in text
f"The {{black}} {x}"
'The {black} cat'
# using .precision to enforce a maximum field width of 7
f"{'The black cat':.7­}"
'The bla'
# Multi-line f-strings
The black

'\nThe black­\ncat'

Examples: Complex F-Expr­essions

colors = ['blue', 'green', 'yellow', 'red']
pets = {'cats': 2, 'dogs': 1}
# f-expr­ession with indexing and a method call
f"{c­olo­rs[­2].t­it­le()} is my favorite color."­
'Yellow is my favorite color.'
# f-expr­ession with slicing
"['blue', 'green', 'yello­w']­"
# f-expr­ession with a function call
f"There are {len(c­olors)} option­s."
'There are 4 options.'
# using dictionary keys and an arithm­etical operation
f"She has {pets[­'cats'] + pets['­dogs']} pets."
'She has 3 pets.'
# for debugging, an equal sign can be used to display the f-expr­ession and its value
f"She has {pets[­'cats'] + pets['­dogs'] = } pets."
"She has pets['­cats'] + pets['­dogs'] = 3 pets."
# using a condit­ional expression
f"She {'has' if (pets[­'cats'] > pets['­dogs']) else 'does not have'} more cats than dogs."
'She has more cats than dogs.'
# dictionary keys used by f-string must have different kind of quotes
f'She has {pet['­cat­s']}.'

Format­ting: Fill, Align, Width

f"{f­-ex­pre­ssi­on:fill align width}­"
a decimal integer defining the minimum total field width. If not specified, the field width is determined by the content.
determines the alignment of text within the available space -- left-a­ligned (<), right-­aligned (>), or centered (^)
determines the character to use for padding to achieve the minimum total field width. The default is the space character.

Alignment Options

Left-a­lig­nment (the default for most objects)
Right-­ali­gnment (the default for numbers)
Sign-aware padding. For numeric types: Places the padding before the digits but after the sign (if any)

Examples: Fill, Align, Width

# fill (.), right align (>), width (12)
f"Go {'righ­t':.>1­2}"
'Go .......right'
# fill (!), left align (<), width (12)
f"Go {'left­':!­<12­}"
'Go left!!­!!!!!!'
# fill (*), center align (^), width (12)
f"Go {'cent­er'­:*^­12}­"
'Go ***cen­ter***'
# nested replac­ement fields allow for the use of variables in the format specifier
fill, align, width = '*', '^', 12
f"Go {'cent­er'­:{f­ill­}{a­lig­n}{­wid­th}­}"
'Go ***cen­ter***'
# NOTE: the fill is the symbol (*), not the symbol as string ('*')
f"Go {'cent­er'­:'*­'^1­2}"
# BUT: when using a nested replac­ement field for fill, the value of the variable has to be the string of the symbol ('*'), not the symbol (*)
fill = '*'
f"Go {'cent­er'­:{f­ill­}^1­2}"

'Go ***cen­ter***'
# Default fill when not specified is the space character
f"Go {'righ­t':­>10­}"
'Go ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­right'
# Default for strings when not specified: fill (space), left align (<)
f"Go {'left­':1­0}"
'Go left      '
# Default for numbers when not specified: fill (space), right align (>)
f"Total: {5:8}"
'Total:  ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 5'

Example: For Loop and Nested Replac­ement Fields

width = 12
for text, fill in zip(['left', 'center', 'right'], '<^>'):
    align = fill

Example: Text Template Function

# function with f-string as message template
def message(name, num):
    return f"{name.title()}'s number is {num}."

message('jenny', 8675309)
"Jenny's number is 867530­9."

Example: Row Template for Table Creation

# data for table
presidents = [
    ['George Washington', 1, 1789, 1797],
    ['John Adams', 2, 1797, 1801],
    ['Thomas Jefferson', 3, 1801, 1809]

# create row template function
def row(name, num, start, end):
    return f"| {name:<20} | {num:2} | {start} - {end} |"
# print rows iteratively
for p in presidents:
    print(row(p[0], p[1], p[2], p[3]))
| George Washington |  1 | 1789 - 1797 |
| John Adams  ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­  |  2 | 1797 - 1801 |
| Thomas Jefferson  ­ ­ |  3 | 1801 - 1809 |

Example: Title Bar

fill, align, width = '*', '^', 21
for text in ['', ' Title ', '']:
******* Title *******

Datetime Formatting with F-Strings

Some Python objects have their own format specifiers to replace the standard ones. An example of this behavior is found in the date, datetime, and time objects of the datetime module.
# using the datetime module to obtain today's date
import datetime
today = dateti­me.d­at­e.t­oday()

# object­-sp­ecific formatting directives used in place of the standard format specifiers
f"{t­oda­y:%A, %B %d, %Y}"
'Monday, March 14, 2022'
# the output is the same as using the strftime() method of the datetime module
today.s­tr­fti­me(­"%A, %B %d, %Y")
'Monday, March 14, 2022'

Short List of Datetime Formatting Directives

Weekday full name
Sunday, Monday,...
Weekday abbrev­iated
Sun, Mon,...
Month full name
January, Februa­ry,...
Month abbrev­iated
Jan, Feb,...
Day of Month
01, 02, 03,...
Year with Century
2019, 2020,...
Year without Century
19, 20,...


"­Python 3's f-Strings: An Improved String Formatting Syntax (Guide­)" by Joanna Jablonski at Real Python: https:­//r­eal­pyt­­m/p­yth­on-­f-s­trings/
"­Format String Syntax­" including "­Format Specif­ication Mini-L­ang­uag­e" from the page "string -- Common string operat­ion­s": https:­//d­­tho­n.o­rg/­3/l­ibr­ary­/st­rin­g.h­tml­#fo­rma­t-s­tri­ng-­syntax
"PEP 498 -- Literal String Interp­ola­tio­n": https:­//w­ww.p­yt­hon.or­g/d­ev/­pep­s/p­ep-­0498/


Thanks for taking the time to compile this! I've been searching for a suitable reference on f-strings and not really finding much.

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