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The Linux File Hierarchy Standard (FHS). This describes what the folders are for on your root directory and what is typically stored there. Everything item in Linux is treated like a file.


(basic shell commands, like ls, cat, grep, etc.)
System Binaries
(binaries that a system admin would use. A standard user typically needs permis­sions to access these. Both bin and sbin are needed to be accessed in single mode, a special mode that boots you as root user to do repairs and upgrades
Boot Loaders
(hardware, including webcams and keyboards; hard drive "­a" would be /dev/sda and the first partition on that hard drive would be /dev/sda1)
Et Cetera
(where all system­-wide config­ura­tions are stored*)
(all your personal files, documents, and downloads; user settings are also stored here in hidden files (those beginning with a "."), namely the .bashrc or .local for individual applic­ation or desktop settings.)
/lib/, /lib32/, /lib64/
(files that binaries need to run certain applic­ation settings)
Flash Drives
(removable drives and devices; Linux automa­tically installs these)
Mounted Drives
(permanent storage)
(manually installed software from vendors and some reposi­tories)
System Processes and Resources
(processes being run in your system­/task manager)
Root User's Home Folder
(tempfs file system; everything in it runs in RAM, so files are created as startup and deleted at shutdown; Used for processes that start early in the boot procedure)
Snap Packages
(mainly used by Ubuntu; completely self-c­ont­ained packages)
(where service data is stored; typically a place to store files you want a server to access if you run a server)
(a way to interact with the Linux kernel; everything in here runs in RAM, so files are created at startup and deleted at shutdown)
User Applic­ations
(where user applic­ations are stored; applic­ations installed here considered non-es­sential for basic system operation; Installed applic­ations are stored in /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/l­oca­l/bin, usr/lo­cal­/sbin and their libraries in /usr/lib, /usr/l­oca­l/lib; Most programs installed from source code are in the local folders and larger programs in /usr/share)
(used to store files that grow in size, like /var/crash for crashes, /var/log/ for program logs, and things like databases for mail and the printer spool, etc.)


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