Show Menu

The Contemporary World Cheat Sheet by

In today's constantly chancing world, societies are becoming increasingly interdependent and have more social, economic, political and cultural relationships. Similarly, the problems and issues that characterize the contemporary world are interconnected and multidimensional. As a result, the various actors- states, organizations, and citizens- are clled uppon to work together to find global solutions.


- In today's constantly chancing world, societies are becoming increa­singly interd­epe­ndent and have more social, economic, political and cultural relati­ons­hips.
- Similarly, the problems and issues that charac­terize the contem­porary world are interc­onn­ected and multid­ime­nsi­onal.
- As a result, the various actors- states, organi­zat­ions, and citizens- are clled uppon to work together to find global solutions.

Global­ization in Sociol­ogical Viewpoint

Anthony Giddens
- The "­int­ens­ifi­cation of worldwide social relations which link distant locali­tites in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occcuring many miles away and vice versa."­ (1990:64)

- Defines global­ization as a concept that "­refers both the compre­ssion of the world and the intens­ifi­cation of consci­ousness of the world as a whole.." (1992:8)

David Harvey (1989)
- Introduced global­ization as the compre­ssion of time and space and the annihi­ation of distance.

Glob­ali­zation in Economic Viewpo­int

Intern­ati­ona­liation and multin­ati­ona­liz­ation are phases that precede global­iza­tion.

Global­ization marks the increasing irrele­vance of the nation­-state, whose status as the dominant political organi­zation was acknow­ledged by the Treaty of Westph­alia.

Dominated by global economic activities like:

1. The neoliberal regime is contem­por­arily used to refer to market­-or­iented reform policies such as "­eli­min­ating price controls, deregu­lating capital markets, lowering trade barrie­rs" and reducing state influence in the economy, especially through privat­ization and austerity.

2. The reduction of tariffs - Tariffs (imposed by the bureau of customs) are considered econom­ically ineffi­cient because they make imports less compet­itive than domest­ically produced goods, which can result in more expensive products for consumers. The creation of transn­ational corpor­ations.

3. The improv­ement of multil­ateral trade organi­zations - having several or many ides; many-s­ided. Partic­ipated in by many more than two nations, parties, etc.; multip­artite: multil­ateral agreements on disarm­ament.

G11N as a process, condit­ions, and ideology:

Steger (2005) explains that global­ization has been commonly understood as a process, condition, or an ideology.

1. Global­ization as a process
- It is viewed as a multid­ime­nsional set of social processes that generate and increase "­wor­ldw­ide­" social interd­epe­nde­ncies and exchanges while at the same time fostering in people a growing awareness of deepening connec­tions between the local and the distan­t" (Steger, 2005:13).

2. Global­ization as a condition
- It refers to globality as a social condition charac­terized by trans-­pla­netary connec­tivity and supra-­ter­rit­ori­ality. Transp­lanetry relations, globality is about the establ­isment of social links between people located at different places of our planet.

- Global­ization as a social condition is charac­terized by thick economic, political, and cultural interc­onn­ections and global flows that render poltical borders and economic barriers irrelevant (Stege­r,2­008).

Supra-­ter­rit­orial relations are "­social connec­tions that transcent territ­orial geogra­phy­". (ex. European Union)

3. Global­ization as an ideology
- Steger explains that global­ization exists in people's consci­ousness because it consists of a set of coherent and comple­mentary ideas and beliefs about the global order.

- Global­ization is a political belief system that benefits a certain class.

Six core claims of global­ization as an ideology

1. Global­ization is abouth the libera­liz­ation and global integr­ation of markets.

2. Global­ization is inevitable and irreve­rsible.

3. Nobody is in charge of global­iza­tion.

4. Global­ization benefits everyone in the long run.

5. Global­ization furthers the spread of democracy in the world.

6. Global­ization requires a global war on terror.


No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

            World of Warcraft Cheat Sheet by Dave Child and
          World of Warcraft: RBG Strategies Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by veirra