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Bio 30 Reproduction by


XX - Female
XY - Male
Embryos identical until 7 weeks, sex is determined after that point when hormones are are present or absent.

Male anatomy terms 2



Male anatomy terms 1

Male anatomy


Male hormones

Y chromosome carries 'testi­s-d­ete­rmining factor', (TDF), which triggers male sex hormones called androgens.
Androgens stimulates production of male sex organs in fetus.
Testes develop first in abdominal cavity, then descend toward scrotum and finish at birth.

Female anatomy terms 2

Female anatomy terms 1

Female anatomy


Sperma­tog­enisis Diagram


Ovarian Cycle Hormones

Ovarian Cycle

1. Follicle (small bag) develops
2. Ovum released
3. Corpus Luteum (yellow body) left behind
4. Corpus Luteum produces proges­terone
5. Corpus Luteum disint­egrates and produces a corpus albicans.
On a diagram, yellow round bodies appear, and as the cycle progresses they get smaller. Corpus albicans is the smallest.

Female Hormone Regulation

Menstrual cycle regulates hormones and releases an ovum at optimal time.
Cycle lasts about 28 days and includes two events, ovarian cycle and uterine cycle.

Human Chorionic Gonado­tropin (hCG)

Maintains the corpus luteum.
Remains at high levels for two months then decreases by four months.
Corpus luteum is maintained for the duration of the pregnancy.
Placenta secretes estrogen and proges­terone for the remainder of pregnancy.

Female Hormone Pathway

Anterior Pituitary -> Lutein­izing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimul­ating Hormone (FSH)

Target: Ovary
Effect: Causes ovulation
After ovulation, corpus luteum develops and secrets proges­terone (endom­etrium thickening and mainta­ining) and Estrogen (endom­etrium thickening + secondary sex charac­ter­istics)

Target: Ovary/­Fol­licle
Effect: Stimulate follicle cells to develop
Follicle cells secrete estrogen (endom­etrium thicke­ning, secondary sex charac­ter­ist­ics).

Male hormone pathway

Lutein­izing hormone
Follicle Stimul­ating Hormone
Target: Leydig cell, inters­titial cell
Target: Sertoli Cells
Effect: Testos­terone (secondary sex charac­ter­istics, suppert sperma­tge­nesis)
Effect: Sperma­tog­ensis
*Effect: Inhibin (inhibits FSH produc­tion)


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