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Psychology - Relationships Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

evolutionary explanations for partner preferences

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

natural selection vs sexual selection

natural selection
sexual selection
natural selection is a theory presented by Darwin and is often referred to as survival of the fittest - it is the idea that those organisms with the most adaptive charac­ter­istics are able to survive different selection pressures to then reproduce and have offspring. this will pass on the genes for the adaptive charac­ter­istics to their offspring which will occur for many genera­tions and will increase the frequency of the adaptive allele in the gene pool
whereas sexual selection is a seperate theory also presented by Darwin suggesting that those with the prefferred charac­ter­istics are more likely to be selected fo mating so that their genes are passsed on to future genera­tions.
what makes natural selection and sexual selection different?
sexual selection is different to natural selection as the mating partners are selected by organisms rather than nature. the charac­ter­istics selected by the mating partener also may also not be the most adaptive to survive selection pressures

what is anisogamy?

anisogamy -
the differ­enece in male and female gametes (sperm and eggs)
females have a limited supply of eggs and can be sure that the child is theirs as they physically give birth - females invest more into their child
males produce millions of sperm but cannot be certain that the child is theirs - they invest less into their child
anisogamny gives rise to two different mating strategies

intras­exual and inters­exual selection

intras­exual selection
- compet­ition within one sex (usually males) to outcompete each other. this increases their chance of selection by females so that they can pass on their genes to future genera­tions
some examples of areas in which organisms have to compete for female selection may include
- strength
- hight
- intell­igence
inters­exual selection
- when one sex (usually females) develops prefer­ences for desirable qualities for potential mates (usually males) - this leads to the preference of the sex determ­ining the areas in which the other sex must outcompete
for example if females seek resources males must work on this to outcompete others also seeking a partner

Buss - sex differ­ences in human mate prefer­ences

to invest­igate whether there are diffee­rneces between females and females and how they choose their mates - also to invest­igate whether these differ­ences are universal and yhe