Show Menu

Dimensions of Globalization Cheat Sheet by

Globalization is a process involving expansions beyond national barriers and growing linkages at the global level. Ideally, it takes place to make the world a global community. It involves global relations that transpire among a wide-range of nation-state forces such as people or labor, objects such as wealth and resources, knowledge such as cultures, information, and technology, and social structures such as economic and political institutions.

Dimensions of Global­ization

Economic Global­ization
Political Global­ization
process of expansions and growing linkages at the global level. Involves forces such as:
- people­/labor
- object­s/w­ealth & resources
- knowledge/ culture
- inform­ation & tech
- social structures (economic and political instit­utions)
Principal Actor: Market
a) Trade- exchange of goods and services
b) Capital Flows- intern­ational movement of money for investment or business production process
c) Labor Migration- mobili­zation of labor across intern­ational borders
Integr­ation of economies may be influenced by politics as political entities control & manage economic forces
- Coming together to make decisions/policies
- Alliances for int'l cooper­ation & developments
- Global movements for organi­zations in other countries
Example: Rice Tariff­ication Law
- Removed restri­ctions on rice imports
- Lower tariffs
-Decline of price

Types of Global­ization

Political and Economic
Science and Technology
For example, the US war against Iraq in 1991 and 2003 certainly had an economic motiva­tion; perhaps to gain more control over Iraq’s oil.
- Food, TV, music, still affected by economic consid­era­tions e.g., profit, tariffs, policies and have economic conseq­uences e.g., effect on demand and prices.
- Spread of religions espcially Islam/­Islamic fundam­ent­alism
- Access to scientific journals and collab­ora­tions among scientists

Health & Medicine
- Diseases can prolif­erate globally
- spread of medical knowledge, expertise & techno­logies useful in treatment
- Curriculum Standardization
- Intern­ational school branches
- Student exchange

History of Global­ization

History of Global­ization
- Interc­ont­inental trading routes for silk & spices in the early centuries
1st Century to 17th Century
1st Century- Silk & spices b/w Asia & Europe
15th Century- trading widened with Scientific Revolution with discov­eries in the fileds of astronomy, mechanics, physics, and shipping.
- Led to discovery of the Americas by Columbus and aided Magellan's circum­nav­igation which ended pre-Co­lombian Civilizations
- Connected East to the West; opened roads to spice islands and other supply of goods & resources

1st Wave (1860-­1914)
Second wave (1946- Present)
Third wave (1989- Present)
- British Industrial Revolution - gave birth to twin engine of global trade
1) Innovation of industrial machines to make iron, textiles, & manufa­ctured goods
2) Steam Engine- steamships and trains that allowed transport of goods
- Second Industrial Revolution (cars & planes)

Instit­utions like the European union & other trade channels backed by the USA increased intern­ational trade
- Gave rise to the internet
- Global exports rose to about a quarter of global GDP in the 2000s
- Trade, which is the sum of imports & exports, grew about half of the world GDP
- In some countries, like Singapore, Belgium, and others, trade is worth much more than 100% of GDP.

In this "­global age", the US sets the tone and leads the way.
World Wars (1914-­1945)
World Trade Org
World War I (1914-­1918) ended global­ization adn reign of high societies in the West- war replaced trade, civilians died, infras­tru­ctures destroyed, countries closed borders, financial markets collapsed.

World War II (1939-­1945) - trade as a percentage of world's GDP fell to 5% - a level not seen in more than a hundred years.
- Encouraged intern­ational organi­zations to enter free-trade agreem­ents. Trade once again rose to 1914 levels, and in 1989, export once again counted for 14% of the global GDP.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union & the wall dividing the East & West, global­ization became an all-co­nqu­ering force.

Theories of Global­ization (Nature & Purpose)

1. Liberalism
2. Political Realism
3. Constr­uct­ivism
4. Marxism
- Human beings haave a natural desire to exercise their basic freedomes & maximize their material well-being.
- Political liberties & economic welfare like:
1) Techno­logical develo­pment- especially commun­ication & transportation
2) Legal and Instit­utional undert­akings to enable the libera­liz­ation of markets

Global­ization as an extension of modern­ization
- Promote the necessity of instit­utional structures & standa­rdi­zation of processes
- The state as the principal actor of global­ization
- Believe that states are innately self-s­erving, thus compet­ition for power is inevitable.
- Existence of a dominant state is neccessary in bringing stability to world order.
- Compet­ition among power-­hungry states generates global relations.

Global­ization is used by major states like China, Japan, Great Britain, and USA
- Apolitical Tendecy: concen­trate on people's mental constr­uction of the social world.
- Believes that one's personal perception & symbolic exchanges w/others help them construct ideas of the world, belong­ingness in the world, and the rules for social interaction.
- Global­ization as a result of people's individual consci­ousness & inter-­sub­jective communications.

Constr­uct­ivists perceive themselves as citizens of a particular world.
“Capital by its nature drives beyond every spatial barrier to conquer the whole earth for its market”.

It results to a profit­-or­iented system that seeks unceasing expansion.

- Conquer earth for its market; capitalist exploi­tation


No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets