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Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet by

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Cheat Sheet


The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology describes the flow of genetic inform­ation in living organisms. It outlines the processes of DNA replic­ation, transc­rip­tion, and transl­ation, which collec­tively govern the synthesis of proteins.

Central Dogma


a. DNA Replic­ation
DNA replic­ation is the process by which a double­-st­randed DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. It occurs in the nucleus during the S phase of the cell cycle.
b. Transc­ription
Transc­ription is the process of synthe­sizing an RNA molecule using a DNA template. It takes place in the nucleus and involves three main steps: initia­tion, elonga­tion, and termin­ation.
c. Transl­ation
Transl­ation is the process of protein synthesis, where the inform­ation stored in mRNA is converted into a specific sequence of amino acids. It occurs in the cytoplasm and involves ribosomes, tRNA molecules, and amino acids.

DNA to Protein

a. DNA is transc­ribed into mRNA in the nucleus.
b. mRNA is modified and transp­orted out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
c. mRNA binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
d. Ribosomes read the mRNA sequence and translate it into a specific sequence of amino acids.
e. tRNA molecules bring the corres­ponding amino acids to the ribosome.
f. Amino acids are joined together to form a polype­ptide chain.
g. The polype­ptide chain folds into a functional protein.

Key Molecules

DNA (Deoxy­rib­onu­cleic Acid)
DNA is a double­-st­randed molecule that carries the genetic inform­ation of an organism. It consists of nucleo­tides, which contain a sugar (deoxy­rib­ose), a phosphate group, and one of four nitrog­enous bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine).
RNA (Ribon­ucleic Acid)
RNA is a single­-st­randed molecule involved in various cellular processes. There are different types of RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
mRNA (Messenger RNA)
mRNA carries the genetic inform­ation from DNA to the ribosomes during transl­ation. It is synthe­sized during transc­ription and undergoes modifi­cations before being transp­orted out of the nucleus.
tRNA (Transfer RNA)
tRNA molecules are respon­sible for carrying specific amino acids to the ribosomes during transl­ation. They have an anticodon that binds to the comple­mentary codon on mRNA.
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
rRNA is a component of ribosomes, which are cellular structures where protein synthesis occurs. Ribosomes consist of rRNA and proteins.


The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology explains how genetic inform­ation is stored, replic­ated, and expressed in living organisms. It is crucial for unders­tanding the fundam­ental processes of life and plays a central role in genetics, molecular biology, and biotec­hno­logy.

Remember that this cheat sheet provides a simplified overview of the Central Dogma. The actual processes are more complex and involve additional regulatory mechanisms and factors.

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