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Exam 1 Crip Sheet

math functions and errors

// whole # division
sytax -error in code form
a+=1 -> a=a+1
% find the remainder
semantic -error in logic
a/=1 -> a=a/1
** read right to left
/ always gives a float
x%y = x-y*(x//y)
{:.xf} -round float to x decimals points

Numerical functions

abs() -gives absolute values
int() -turns object to integer
float() -turns object to float
-round­(nu­mbe­r,what to round to)
-max() -finds max in list
min() -finds min in list

Import Math

math.pi is pi
math.s­qrt(x) -takes square root of x
math.e is e
math.c­eil(x) -returns smallest integer greater than x
math.t­runc(x) -removes decimal values from x

String manipu­lation

\n -end current line and start new
\t -creates a "­tab­"
\' or \" -doesnt interpret as string delimiter
\\ -true backslash
, creates defaut space of 1. can be use with all object types
+ creates no space. Cant be use to put together string and integer (or float)
string.lo­wer() -turns all letters to lowercase
string.up­per() -turns all letter to uppercase­pit­alize() -only first letter in string is uppercase
string.ti­tle() -first letter of every word is uppercase­pla­ce(­string you want to replace, what you replace with)­nd(what you want to find)
gives number of location in string
returns -1 if it cant find­unt­(what you want to count)
will give number counted
returns 0 if nothing to count­rip­(what you want to remove)
sep="" -used to change default space betwen objects seperated by ,

Variables and object intera­ctions

Variables start with letter or _
Variables can't have spaces
string and integers cant be added
string and sting cant be multiplied

Lexogr­aphical Order

Uppercase < Lowecase
a < b


len(tuple) -gives the # of objects in a tuple
cant update a tuple
tuples and strings are immutable
tuples can be added
ex r=(1,1)

Boolean Logic

If, elif, and else must all end with :
any commands following must be indented
can us <, <=, >, >, >=, ==, or !=
!= is for not equal to
cant use = since that is for variable assignment
output values are only true or false


def functi­on_­nam­e(V­ari­able):
every line which comes below is indented
can end with return statement to return a variable


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