Show Menu

Translation Cheat Sheet by


Transl­ation Facts

Proteins are synthe­sized from amino acids through the process of transl­ation
tRNA carries amino acids to ribosome for protein synthesis. Amino acids not involved in decoding - fidelity of protein synthesis requires correct charging of tRNA
Properties of genetic code: triple­t(c­odon), non-ov­erl­apping, unambi­guo­us(­clear), degene­rate, universal
3 phases of transl­ation: initia­tion, elonga­tion, termin­ation
- tRNA base-pairs with mRNA; wobble base pairing
- mRNA is read from 5' to 3', polype­ptide extends from N- to C- terminus
Amino acid on tRNA is not involved in codon recogn­ition

Structure of tRNA

Structure of tRNA

The confor­mation (three­-di­men­sional shape) of tRNA results from base pairing (hydrogen bonds) within the molecule.
The sequence on 3' end is always CCA: the amino acid attachment site.
Anticodon: site of base pairing with mRNA. Unique for each species of tRNA.


Charging a tRNA molecule

Aminoa­cyl­-tRNA synthe­tases: for charging a transfer RNA with the correct amino acid
Each enzyme is specific for one amino acid

Properties of genetic code

3 bases made up a codon
Each codon specify one amino acid
Degene­rate: more than one codon for the same amino acid
Nearly universal

Codon table


Structure of ribosome

Three phases of transl­ation

- Start codon: AUG
In eukary­otes, ribosome binds to 5' cap and moves along the mRNA to find the first start codon.
- mRNA is read from 5' end to 3' end
- Proteins are synthe­sized from N-terminus to C-terminus
- Stop codons: UAA, UAG, UGA


Initiation of transl­ation

Elongation of transl­ation

Termin­ation of transl­ation



No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          Enzyme Cheat Sheet
          Amino acid,Protein structure Cheat Sheet
          Glycolysis Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by rhettbro

          Water,pH,Buffer Cheat Sheet
          Enzyme Cheat Sheet
          Amino acid,Protein structure Cheat Sheet