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Oxidative Phosphorylation Cheat Sheet by



Oxidative phosph­ory­lation (Electron transport chain + Chemio­smosis)
Eukaryotic Oxidative Phosph­ory­lation Takes Place in Mitoch­ondria
Oxidative Phosph­ory­lation Depends on Electron Transfer (loss of electrons)
The Respir­atory Chain Consists of Four Complexes: Three Proton Pumps and a Physical Link to the Citric Acid Cycle
A Proton Gradient Powers the Synthesis of ATP
Many Shuttles Allow Movement Across the Mitoch­ondrial Membranes
The Regulation of Cellular Respir­ation Is Governed Primarily by the Need for ATP
Electron transfer potential of NADH and FADH2 -> Phosphoryl transfer potential of ATP


A sedentary male of 70 kg (154 lbs) requires about 8400 kJ (2000 kcal) for a day’s worth of activity.
To provide this much energy requires 83 kg of ATP. However, human beings possess only about 250 g of ATP at any given moment.
The disparity between the amount of ATP that we have and the amount that we require is compen­sated by recycling ADP back to ATP. Each ATP molecule is recycled approx­imately 300 times per day. This recycling takes place primarily through oxidative phosph­ory­lation.


Overview of oxidative phosph­ory­lation


Eukaryotic Oxi_Phos_ take place in Mitoch­ondria


Humans contain an estimated 14,000 m2 of inner mitoch­ondrial membrane.
The mitoch­ondrial matrix is the site of most of the reactions of the citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation. In contrast, oxidative phosph­ory­lation takes place in the inner mitoch­ondrial membrane
The outer membrane is quite permeable to most small molecules and ions because it contains many copies of mitoch­ondrial porin,a 30- to 35-kd pore-f­orming protein also known as VDAC, for voltag­e-d­epe­ndent anion channel.
In contrast, the inner membrane is imperm­eable to nearly all ions and polar molecules.

Electron transfer

Electron transfer

Volt potential difference between NADH and O2 drives electron transport and favors formation of a proton gradient

Respir­atory Chain have Four Complexes

Three Proton Pumps and a Physical Link to the Citric Acid Cycle
Electrons are transf­erred from NADH to O2 through a chain of three large protein complexes called NADH-Q oxidor­edu­cta­se(I), Q-cyto­chrome c oxidor­edu­ctase (III), and cytochrome c oxidase (IV).
Electron flow within these transm­embrane complexes leads to the transport of protons across the inner mitoch­ondrial membrane.
A fourth large protein complex, called succin­ate-Q reductase (II), contains the succinate dehydr­ogenase that generates FADH2 in the citric acid cycle.
Oxidor­edu­ctase =~ reductase =~ dehydr­ogenase
Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) also carries electrons from FADH2 (generated by citric acid cycle) generated through succin­ate-Q reductase

Electr­ons­flo­wdown an energy gradient from NADHtoO2

Components of mitoch­ondrial etc



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