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Glycolysis2 Cheat Sheet by


Fructose metabolism

Galactose metabolism

Deficient in Lactase (Lactose intorl­erant)

Galactose Is Toxic If Transf­erase Missing

The Glycolytic Pathway Is Tightly Controlled


Key Enzymes

1. Hexokinase
2. Phosph­ofr­uct­oki­nase-1
3. Pyruvate kinase

Methods of regulation

1. allosteric regulation
2. covalent modifi­cation

Phosph­­of­r­u­ct­­oki­­nase-1 (PFK-1)

the key point for regulation of glycolysis
allosteric activa­tor­:AMP; F-2,6-BP (in the liver)
allosteric inhibi­tor­:ATP; citrate
In high concen­tra­tions, fructose 6-phos­phate (F-6P) activates the enzyme phosph­ofr­uct­okinase (PFK) through an interm­ediary, fructose 2,6-bi­sph­osphate (F-2,6­-BP).

F-6P to PFK if too many Glucose(by insulin)

Pyruvate kinase


Hexokinase is suppressed by its product G-6-P.
Glucok­inase in liver, is not inhibited by G-6-P.
Glucok­inase phosph­ory­lates glucose only when glucose is abundant
The role of glucok­inase is to provide G-6-P for the synthesis of glycogen and for the formation of fatty acids.
Gives the brain and muscles first call on glucose when its supply is limited, and it ensures that glucose will not be wasted when it is abundant.

Glucose Transp­ort­ers­(GLUTs)

Glycolysis and Glucon­eog­enesis back and forth

from Noncar­boh­ydrate Precursors to Glucose

The glucon­eogenic (糖異生) pathway converts pyruvate into glucose.
Glucon­eog­enesis is not a reversal of glycolysis
Noncar­boh­ydrate precursors are first converted into pyruvate, oxaloa­cetate, dihydr­oxy­acetone phosphate.
Noncar­boh­ydrate Precur­sors: lactate, amino acids, and glycerol.

pathway of Glucon­eog­enesis



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