a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base
Nucleotides are joint by phosphodiester bonds, phosphate group connect to the 3' C of one sugar, and the 5' C of the next sugar
Backbone made up of alternating pentose and phosphates
Nucleic acid strand has a polarity: a 5' end and a 3' end
amount of A = amount of T, G = C
key features of DNA
right-handed double-stranded helix, uniform diameter
antiparallel: two strands run in opposite directions
5' phosphate group and 3' hydroxyl group
complementary base pairing (A-T;C-G)
B-DNA consists of an double helix with approximately 10 bases per turn.
Found in nucleus (and mitochondria)
Coded instructions for making proteins
Weak bonds between bases(hydrogen bond)
Fatty acids-> Fats,Lipids,Membranes
Lipids are a broad group of compounds from biological origin that can dissolve in nonpolar solvents, such as chloroform and diethyl ether
Oily, greasy, waxy substances. Not water soluble. Extracted from organisms by organic solvents.
Even though they are different in structure (diff. types- fats,waxes,sterols,fat-soluble vitamins A D E K), they share some same properties
Lipids in our body
Free fatty acid
Glycogen in animals
glycogen used for short-term energy storage, they converted to glucose when energy is required.
Starch in plants
Lipids have more energy content per unit mass of carbohydrates
Lipids used for long-term energy storage
Triglycerides(甘油三酯) converted to fatty acids and glycerol → energy
Triglycerides are broken down to yield acetyl CoA.