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DNA,Lipid Cheat Sheet by


DNA-ge­netic material

Deoxyr­ibo­nucleic acid
Nucleo­tid­es-­>Nu­cleic acids
a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrog­en-­con­taining base
Nucleo­tides are joint by phosph­odi­ester bonds, phosphate group connect to the 3' C of one sugar, and the 5' C of the next sugar
Backbone made up of altern­ating pentose and phosphates
Nucleic acid strand has a polarity: a 5' end and a 3' end
amount of A = amount of T, G = C

key features of DNA

right-­handed double­-st­randed helix, uniform diameter
antipa­rallel: two strands run in opposite directions
5' phosphate group and 3' hydroxyl group
comple­mentary base pairing (A-T;C-G)
B-DNA consists of an double helix with approx­imately 10 bases per turn.


Found in nucleus (and mitoch­ondria)
Coded instru­ctions for making proteins
Weak bonds between bases(­hyd­rogen bond)
Negatively charged
Relatively stable





Fatty acids-> Fats,L­ipi­ds,­Mem­branes
Lipids are a broad group of compounds from biological origin that can dissolve in nonpolar solvents, such as chloroform and diethyl ether
Oily, greasy, waxy substa­nces. Not water soluble. Extracted from organisms by organic solvents.
Even though they are different in structure (diff. types- fats,w­axe­s,s­ter­ols­,fa­t-s­oluble vitamins A D E K), they share some same properties
Cell membrane
Energy storage
Thermal insulation
Lipids in our body
Free fatty acid
Choles­terol ester

Energy storage

Glycogen in animals
glycogen used for short-term energy storage, they converted to glucose when energy is required.
Starch in plants
Lipids have more energy content per unit mass of carboh­ydrates
Lipids used for long-term energy storage
Trigly­cer­ide­s(甘油三酯) converted to fatty acids and glycerol → energy
Trigly­cerides are broken down to yield acetyl CoA.

N base


Lipids Classi­fic­ation

central dogma

Pyrimidine base

purine base



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