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biology grade 10 cbse 2022-23 Cheat Sheet by

chapter 6:life processes

Digestive enzymes and secretions

salivary gland
buccal cavity
salivary amylase
breaking down starch to simple sugar
gastric gland
(i) pepsin
(ii) hydroc­hloric acid
(ii) mucus
(i) digestion of protiens
(ii) creates an acidic medium which facili­tates the action of the enzyme pepsin
(iii)protects the inner lining of the stomach from the action of acid in normal conditions
bile juice
(i) acidic food from the stomach (chyme) is made alkaline
(ii) emulsi­fying of fats
pancreatic juice
(i) trypsin
(ii) lipase

(i) digesting proteins
(ii)br­eaking down of emulsified fats
intestinal glands
small intestine
intestinal juice
converts proteins into amino acids, complex carboh­ydrates in glucose and fats into fatty acids and glycerol

xylem and phloem


the first step is the breakdown of glucose, a six-carbon molecule, into a three-­carbon molecule called pyruvate. this process takes place in the cytoplasm.
(i) anaero­bic:-
-anaerobic respir­ation occurs in the absence of oxygen
-it releases lesser energy
-it takes place in yeast;- the pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide
-in humans, during vigorous


Inhala­tion:-when we breathe in, air passes through the trachea, and ribs move up and flatten the diaphragm due to which chest cavity becomes larger. as a result air is sucked and fills the expanded alveoli.
exhalation:-ribs move down and the diaphragm becomes dome-s­haped decreasing the chest cavity. Thus, pushing the air out of the lungs.
**nostrils > nasal passage > pharynx >
larynx > trachea > lungs > bronchi > bronch­ioles > alveoli > blood > cells**

functi­oning of excretory system

one end of each nephron as a hollow cup- bowman's capsule. the bowman's capsule has a bundle of blood capill­aries called the glomer­ulus. one end of the glomerulus is attached to the renal artery. the function of the glomerulus is to filter the blood passing through it. only small molecules like glucose, amino acids, salts, urea, and water collected in bowman's capsule are the filtrate. the filtrate collects in the collecting duct of the kidneys from where it is carried to the ureter .urter then passes this filtrate to the urinary bladder from where urine is ultimately passed out

digestive system


Pulmonary circul­ation:-
the movement of blood from the heart to lungs and back to heart consti­tutes pulmonary circulation
**Syst­ematic circul­ation:-
the movement of blood from the heart to various places of the body expect lungs and back to the heart

guard cells


amoeba takes in food using temporary finger­-like extensions of the cell surface which fuse over the food particle forming a food vacuole. inside the food, vacuole complex substances are converted to simpler ones which then diffuse into cytoplasm

excretory system



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