Show Menu

Type I & II Diabetes Cheat Sheet by

Quick reference cheat sheet for type 1 & 2 diabetes

Type I Diabetes

Patho: autoimmune response, genetic, no insulin production
S/S: Younger than 35, slimmer, dry skin, fatigue, decreased wound healing

Type II Diabetes

Patho: onset is accele­rated by obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Insulin resist­ance, impaired insulin secretion
Risk Factors: Systolic BP >130, Fasting BG >100, Overweight (waist size 35+ Female, 45+ Male), High Choles­terol.
Treatment: Diet & Exercise, Oral medica­tion, Insulin

Gestat­ional Diabetes

Placental hormones cause insulin resist­ance.
All women are screened 24-28 weeks gestation.
More likely to develop Type II within 10 years.
Treatment: Diet & Exercise, blood sugar monito­ring, insulin

Choles­terol Panel Normals

Total Choles­terol
< 200
< 150
< 100


Patho: BG < 70 mg/dL
Causes: too much insulin or oral hypogl­ycemic agents, too little food, excessive physical activity
Mild S/S: sweating, tremor, tachyc­ardia, palpit­ation, nervou­sness, and hunger
Moderate S/S: inability to concen­trate, headache, lighth­ead­edness, confusion, memory lapses, numbness of the lips and tongue, slurred speech, ALOC, drowsi­ness, double vision, emotional changes
Severe S/S: disori­ented behavior, seizures, difficulty arousing from sleep, loss of consci­ousness
Nursing Interv­entions: Immedi­ately treat with 15-20g of simple carboh­ydrates (ex.ju­ice), Adults w/ BG <54 or uncons­cious and can't swallow - inject glucagon IM or SQ, In a hospital setting for pts who are uncons­cious or can't swallow - admin 25-50mL of D50W
Pt Education: pattern of eating, medication or insulin admin, emergency simple carboh­ydrates on hand, high calori­e/high fat foods slow the absorption of glucose


Patho: BG > 100
Causes: sepsis (infec­tion), stress (surgery), skip insulin, steroids ("so­ne")
Treatment: Give insulin, antibi­otics if necessary, and NS


More common in Type I
More common in Type II
Rapid (<24h)
Several days
Causes- Infection, Surgery, Stress, Stroke, MI, skipping insulin, untreated DM1, steroid use
Causes- Infection, Surgery, Stress, Stroke, MI, medica­tions (ex. thiazi­des), treatments (ex. dialysis)
Blood Glucose Levels
> 250 mg/dL
> 600 mg/dL
3 P's, Kussmaul respir­ations, fruity breath, blurred vision, weakness, headache, n/v
Hypote­nsion, frequent urination, dehydr­ation, tachyc­ardia, ALOC, seizures
<7.3 (metabolic acidosis)
Urine Ketones
BUN & Creatinine
Nursing Priorities
Fluid replac­ement, correction of electr­olyte imbalance, insulin admini­str­ation
Fluid replac­ement (Isotonic IV, no LR), correction of electr­olyte imbalance, insulin admini­str­ation
Monitor K+ for hypoka­lemia
Monitor K+ for hypoka­lemia
Nursing Interv­entions
Monitor VS, I&O, assess for dehydr­ation hourly. Monitor for fluid overload. Monitor for cerebral edema.
Monitor VS, I&O, assess for dehydr­ation hourly. Monitor for fluid overload. Monitor for cerebral edema.


No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          Insulin Cheat Sheet
          Sulfonylureas Cheat Sheet
          GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by Nandrews

          Thyroid Issues Cheat Sheet