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Lifespan Development COMP Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Lifespan Development comprehensive examination william james college cheat sheet

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Cross-­Cul­tural Psychology

Lifespan: The science that seeks to understand the way people change & stay the same as they grow – Kathleen Berger
Cross-­Cul­tural Psychology: The systematic study of relati­onships between the cultural context of human develo­pment and the behaviors that become establ­ished in the repertoire of indivi­duals growing up in a particular culture
Anthro­pology is most relevant to cross-­cul­tural psychology
E.B. Tylor, who was the first anthro­pol­ogist to define the term "­cul­tur­e," referred to it as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabi­lities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Goals: testing or extending the genera­liz­ability of existing theories and findings
Etic Approach: Involves studying behaviors of multiple cultures from outside the system, and compar­es/­con­trasts features using criteria thought to be absolute or universal
Emic Approach: Describes the study of cultural norms that are specific to one group of people or within one culture
Homoge­neous Approach: underlying values and beliefs are shared and pervasive
in sensor­imotor develo­pment, there are more simila­rities across cultures than there are differ­ences

Historical Views of Children & Childhood

Original Sin = Children born into the world as evil beings
Plato Children born with innate knowledge – Sensory experi­ences trigger this knowledge
Aristotle Innate knowledge does not exist – Knowledge rooted in sensory experi­ences
Locke Tabula Rasa “clean slate” – Knowledge shaped by reinfo­rcement
Rousseau Newborn endowed with sense of morality and justice – Adults help child develop in their natural capacities

Aspects of Develo­pment

Physical, Cognitive, Moral, Emotional & Social
Emotional & Social Develo­pment Themes: nature­/nu­rture, Ecological Systems View Point–Bronfe­nbr­enner (Co-fo­und­er-Head Start)
Enviro­nme­nt=­Nested Structures a.Micros­ystem Direct exposure (relat­ion­ships, school, etc.) b.Mesosystem Interc­onn­ections between systems c.Exosystem Instit­utions of society that indirect affect child d.Macros­ystem Cultural (values, beliefs, customs, &laws) e.Chrono­system time
Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson: Tradit­ional or mainstream psycho­logical theories that focus on the individual
Bronfe­nbr­enner, Super and Harkness, and Vygotsky: Intera­cti­onist theories
The need for relating includes being loved, valued, accepted.
Assump­tions of Ecological Systems Theory: Time is a limitation and a resource, Human behavior can be understood at the individual and at the population level, Humans organize their intera­ctions within their spatial enviro­nment.

The Develo­pmental Niche (Super & Harkness)

Physical & Social settings, Collection of Customary Practices, Careta­kers’ beliefs & expect­ations
Attach­ment: Social and emotional nouris­hment 1.Proximity Mainte­nance 2.Safe Haven 3.Secure Base 4.Separation Distress
Attachment for sense of security and affects internal working model
Bowlby Leading Theorist on Attachment (draws on the work ofLorenz)
Stages of Attachment Birth-­2mo­nths: attachment presents, but directed at any person 2-7months: Attachment becomes focused on a primary caregi­ver­(mo­ther); separation anxiety develops near the end of this period 7-24mo­nths: Attachment with signif­icant caregivers develop; Infant elicits attachment behavior by actively seekin­g/e­ngaging 24months: Increasing cognitive & social develo­pment allows the child to take others’ feelings & perspe­ctives into consid­eration & use these to form multiple social attach­ments to peers/­car­egivers
Believed that there is a form of imprinting in humans
Our early ancestors seem to have foraged about in small groups and were threatened by large predators. Bowlby referred to this as the enviro­nment of adapte­dness
Imprinting is most precisely defined as the process by which the releasing stimuli of instincts are filled in
Occur during the same phase of attach­ment: the Moro reflex, cooing and babbling, social smiling
A human baby crawling after a parent is following innate, evolved tenden­cies, has "­imp­rin­ted­" on the parent, is attached to the parent
Between about 2 and 3 months, social smiles are elicited primarily by faces in the frontal position
Occurs during the same phase of attach­ment: separation anxiety, crying out for a departing parent, stranger anxiety
Mary Ainsworth Attachment w/12-18 month old's in “strange situat­ions.” Concluded there are two main styles of attach­ment: secure & insecure
Secure 1.Able to separate from parent 2.Seek comfort from parents when frightened 3.Return of parents is met with positive emotions 4.Prefers parents to stranger
Insecure: 1.Resistant a.May be wary of strangers b.Become greatly distressed when the parent leaves c.Does not appear to be comforted by the return of the parent 2.Avoidant a.May avoid parents b.Does not seek comfor­t/c­ontact from parents c.Shows little or no preference for parent & stranger 3.Disorg­ani­zed­/di­sor­iented a.Show a mixture of avoidant & resistant behaviors b.May seem dazed, confused, or appreh­ensive
According to Bowlby and Ainsworth, a one-ye­ar-old boy who uses the mother as a "base of suppor­t" behaves in a healthy manner
In their child rearing advice, Bowlby and Ainsworth say parents should take their cues from their children
The Bowlby­/Ai­nsworth advice on child-­rearing is most similar to that of Gesell
Research suggests that the parents of insecu­re-­amb­ivalent children are preocc­upied with winning their own parents' love
Harry Harlow 1963 Research with monkeys; study suggested social bond is more important than food & physical presence
Mary Main Developed the Adult Attachment Interview Protocol: Believed earlier experi­ences shape later behaviors, beliefs, and expect­ations about relati­ons­hips.
Erik Erikson saw the task of this stage of develo­pment as achieving a sense of trust vs. mistrust

Strange Situation (Ainsw­orth)

Children aged 12-18 months & their mothers enter a room
Child plays with the toys while the mother is present
A stranger enters the room & caregiver leaves
The stranger tries to comfort the child
The caregiver returns & the stranger leaves
The caregiver comforts the child & then leaves for a second time
The child is left alone for 3 minutes
The stranger enters & interacts with the child
The caregiver enters, picks up the child & stranger leaves.

Cognitive Develo­pment

Three Approa­ches: 1.Piaget: We develop in 4 discrete stages 2.Inform­ation Processing Theory: We become more efficient at processing inform­ation as we mature (like comput­ers). 3.Vygotsky: Socioc­ultural expect­ations we should know at different ages, and our “appre­nti­ceship” experi­ences shape develo­pment


Vygotsky’s Socioc­ultural Perspe­ctive
Culture and society play a pivotal role in theory
Expected cognitive develo­pment to vary from society to society
Social intera­ction and thought, Language shapes thought
Thought changes fundam­entally once we are able to think in words
Balance between internal develo­pmental and socio-­his­torical influences
Vygotsky was interested in speech and memory aids as psycho­logical tools, believing that egocentric or self-d­irected speech is useful to children. Self-d­irected speech: begins developing after social speech, starts out spoken and gradually becomes intern­alized, becomes increa­singly abbrev­iated during the ages 6 to 8 years
Zone of Proximal Develo­pment: the distance between what a learner is capable of doing unsupp­orted, and what they can only do supported (assesses childs potential for new learning)
Vygotsky Basic Principles of Cognitive Develo­pment:
Children are active scientists or explorers of their world ii. Children make sense of the world through schemes. Explicit Cognition: Cognition that you are aware of (and can describe in words) Implicit Cognition: Knowledge that you may not be able to describe in words
Informal Learning: accurately learni­ng/­per­forming tasks in daily life
Inner speech: articu­lates dimly formed thoughts and feelings
Vygotsky was committed to Marxism, Marx argued that people's ideas and values reflect people's economic interests
Piaget and Vygotsky most strongly disagreed over the importance of children making their own discov­eries
Play involves rules. Children talk out loud to solve difficult tasks.
Vygotsky, compared to Piaget, believed it can be productive to teach concepts beyond the child's grasp
The "­Tools of the Mind" project tries to teach self regulation through play
Luria found that when young children try to give themselves verbal commands. they behave as if all commands initiate behavior
Vygotsky claimed that we are born with four 'eleme­ntary mental functions' : Attention, Sensation, Percep­tion, and Memory
Vygotsky was perhaps the first to advance: mediation, metaco­gni­tion, inner speech
children first learn the social forms of behavior, then apply it to themselves themselves
Terms: mediation, metaco­gni­tion, inner speech
Contem­porary Vygots­kians see children's make-b­elieve play as requiring initial adult support
develops after all the others: transf­orm­ations
Piaget focused on the role of objects while Vygotsky focused on the role of people
According to Piaget develo­pment leads learning; according to Vygotsky learning leads develo­pment.

Jean Piaget

Scheme: Child’s knowledge, repres­ent­ations, and ways of intera­cting with the world.
emphasized indepe­ndent thinking
Adaptation: Relates schemes & experi­ences in the world Assimi­lation interprets new experience in terms of existing schemes Accomm­odation alters schemes in response to new experi­ences Equili­bration assimi­lation & accomm­odation working together to enrich the child’s worldview
4 Periods of Develo­pment
Period 1: Sensor­imotor Intell­igence (Birth­-2yrs & consist of six stages) Reflexes (1 month) Primary Circular Reactions (1 to 4 months) Infants coordinate two body actions. Baby chances upon a new experience & tries to repeat its “const­ruction process” Secondary Circular Reactions (4 to 8 months) Baby discovers & reproduces an intere­sting event outside themselves The Coordi­nation of Secondary Schemes (8 to 12 months) Learning to coordinate two different schemes to get a result Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) infant experi­ments with different actions & observes the outcome The Beginnings of Thought (18mo – 2 years) Children think out situations more internally before they act, marked by deferred imitation
Period 2: Preope­rat­ional Thought (2-7 years) Symbolic functi­on/­Rep­res­ent­ational insight The Prefrontal Cortex Social Thinking, Animism Assuming that all things that move are alive and have human charac­ter­istics, Reific­ation Believing that people & objects in stories and dreams are real, Egocen­trism collective monolo­gue­s,f­ailing to realize that others can't see one's dreams, not consid­ering another's viewpoint Lack of conser­vation is a sign of this stage
Period 3: Concrete Operations (7-11 years) Cognitive operations Internal mental activity to modify symbols to reach a logical conclu­sion. Marked by mastery of conser­vation (by recogn­izing the contra­dic­tions in their own thought) master conser­vation and classi­fic­ation tasks
Period 4: Formal Operations (12+) Hypoth­eti­c-d­edu­ctive reasoning ability to generate hypotheses and use deductive reasoning (general to specific) Inductive Reasoning going from specific observ­ations to genera­liz­ations
Cognitive Changes in Adoles­cence Hormones affect brain develo­pment, especially in the amygdala, where emotions are regulated. Risky behaviors and emotio­nality may be the result of brain areas developing at different rates
Cognitive Develo­pment Emotional intell­igence Aspects of the way people handle their own emotions and others
Recent research suggests Piaget' stages are not too general across tasks
Focuses of Piaget's theory include: how we come to know something, whether objective knowledge is possible or not, whether we are born knowing specific ideas or must learn them all
Points Piaget made: logic is a very intern­alized form of motor action, the first symbols are motor actions, not words, the rates of develo­pment vary from child to child
When children enter the Concrete Operations stage of cognitive develo­pment, they are able to conserve liquids and may use one of three arguments: Identity, Compen­sation (one is taller, but the other is wider, so they cancel each other out), Inversion (you could make this row long again and make them equal)
When two preope­rat­ional children are engaged in parallel play they are displaying egocentric play
When children consider rules fixed and unchan­geable, Piaget used the term moral heteronomy
Piaget said most people reach the highest stages of reasoning primarily in areas of special interest or ability
Based on cross-­cul­tural research of Piaget's preope­rat­ional and concrete operat­ional stages of develo­pment, we can conclude that while children in different cultures have to deal with different realities, they apply all of the same operations or processes of thought.
Piaget's stage of "­formal operat­ional thinki­ng" has been the subject of many years of cross-­cul­tural research, revealing that there is little use of formal operat­ional thinking

Noam Chomsky Basic Concepts

Father of Modern Lingui­stics
Biological Approach children are born ready to learn whatever languages they hear around them through the (LAD)
Beliefs The ability to learn language is instin­ctive. Children learn to talk because they are geneti­cally equipped to do so
Theory All babies language develo­pment follows a pattern. Humans have a Language Acquis­ition Device (LAD)

Social Learning and Develo­pment

Pavlov: classical condit­ioning; dog experi­ments. Classical condit­ioning deals with: the pairing of stimuli that precede responses, extinc­tion, condit­ioning of reflexes and innate behavior
Watson: fear and emotional condit­ioning; systematic desens­iti­zation Little Albert
Bandura Observ­ational Process
Bandura: social­ization and role modeling; children learn through imitation and modeling Vicarious reinfo­rcement: learn through observing conseq­uences of others’ behaviors Modeling: observe behavior of others and repeat that behavior (Types: live, verbal, symbolic) Self-E­fficacy: Regulation of one’s own behavior (increases motiva­tion)
Attention Developing cognitive processes to pay attention to a model- more developed processes allow for better attention, Must observe the model accurately enough to imitate behavior
Retention Imaginal internal repres­ent­ation: visual image, forming mental picture Verbal system: verbal descri­ption of behavior; silently rehearsing steps in behavior
Production Taking imaginal and verbal repres­ent­ations and transl­ating into overt behavior- practice behaviors, Receive feedback on accuracy of behavior, Important in mastering difficult skills
Incentive and Motivation With incent­ives, observ­ation more quickly becomes action, pay more attention, retain more inform­ation, Incentive to learn influenced by antici­pated reinfo­rce­ments
Abstract modeling is a way of learning skills and behaviors by the indirect observ­ation of others (When children pick up the rules underlying modeled behavior)
observ­ational learning from models, compared to operant condit­ioning, is frequently faster
Variables strongly influe­ncing self-e­fficacy appraisals: pep talks, physio­logical cues, vicarious experi­ences
Four areas in social­ization: aggres­sion, gender roles, prosocial behavior, and self-r­egu­lation
Aggression: Bobo Doll-boys more aggres­sive. Children watching an aggressive cartoon were more aggressie in their play.
preaching can have strong short-term effects on pro-social behavi­orbut can backfire
Direct reinfo­rce­ments primarily affect perfor­mances rather than the acquis­ition of responses
Piagetians generally believe that Bandura undere­sti­mates the power of sponta­neous interests Bandura has come to view Piaget's theory as still wrong in major respects: that children go through general stages, learn from moderately novel events, learn through intrinsic motivation
Bandura says a positive sense of self-e­fficacy gives one energy to persist with tasks
Skinner's Operant Condit­ioning
Behavior determined by conseq­uences. A key measure of condit­ioning is the rate of response
In Skinner's view, punishment often produces unwanted side effects, positive learning is more effective
Terms: Discri­min­ative Stimulus a stimulus that increases the probab­ility of a response because of a previous history, Positive reinfo­rce­ment, negative reinfo­rce­ment, punish­ment, extinc­tion, shaping (method of approx­ima­tions) can teach skills little by little
Skinnerian theory has lost much popularity because psycho­logists have become increa­singly interested in cognition
In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner's followers, proposes we consider reinfo­rcement as the momentary probab­ility of a response
Responses that are interm­itt­ently rather than contin­uously reinforced are more difficult to extinguish
Skinner discussed emotions as the effects of reinfo­rcement schedules
Skinner's attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically positive
"­Con­str­ain­ts" on learning refer to the finding that organisms learn some things more readily than others
The most basic difference between Skinner and the develo­pme­nta­lists has to do with the source of develo­pmental change­—inner or outer
Internal events such as thoughts should only be studied if they can be observed and measured
Bandura's observ­ational learning theory differs from Skinner's operant theory on the need to directly act to learn

Erikson & Freud Psycho­social Develo­pment

Freud: Psycho­ana­lytic
Stage 1: Oral 0-18 months, sucking, swallo­wing. EGO develops
Stage 2: Anal Age 18-36m­onths, children begin potty training
Stage 3: Phallic 3-6 years, girls attached to father, boys to mother. Genita­ls/­mas­tur­bation. SUPEREGO develops
Stage 4: Latency age 6 to puberty. repression of sexual feelings, intera­cting with same-sex peers.
Stage 5: Genital Puberty +, sexual interc­ourse
Defense mechanisms: Denial, Repres­sion, Regres­sion, Sublim­ation Projec­tion, Displa­cement, Reaction Formation: converting unacce­ptable and dangerous impulses into something positive to reduce anxiety, Ration­ali­zation Defenses operate uncons­ciously
3 Levels of awareness: Conscious: working memory, contents actively thinking about; easily accessed, Precon­scious: contents you are not currently aware of; thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings; available for easy access when needed, Uncons­cious: contents kept out of conscious awareness; not accessible
Precon­scious Superego: morali­st/­ide­alistic part of person­ality; begins forming at age 4/5, Uncons­cious Id: pleasure principle; generates all of person­ality’s energy Ego: resides in all levels of awareness; “reality” principle; Attempts negoti­ation between Id and Superego to satisfy both realis­tic­ally. Has no energy or its own. Delays impulses. Includes cognitive functions.
Freud first replaced hypnosis with free associ­ation
The text says the story of Hansel and Gretel illust­rates conflicts at the oral stage
Eriksons Psycho­social Stages
Stage 1: Birth to age 1 Trust vs Mistrust Totally dependent on others; caregiver influences trust, Basic strength: Hope
Stage 2: Ages 1-3 Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Able to exercise some degree of choice, Basic strength: will
Stage 3: Ages 3-5 Initiative vs Guilt Expresses desire to take initiative in activi­ties, Basic strength: Purpose
Stage 4: Ages 6-11 Industry vs Inferi­ority Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play), Basic strength: Competence
Stage 5: Ages 12-18 Identity vs Role Confusion Form ego-id­entity: self-i­mage, Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confid­ence, psycho­social moratorium occurs, Identity crisis: confusion of ego identity, Basic strength: Fidelity
Stage 6: Ages 18-35 Intimacy vs Isolation Undertake productive work and establish intimate relati­onship, Basic strength: Love
Stage 7: Ages 35-55 Genera­tivity vs Stagnation Genera­tivity: Active involv­ement in teachi­ng/­guiding the next genera­tion, Basic streng­th:Care
Stage 8: Ages 55+ Integrity vs Despair Integrity, Look back with satisf­action, Despair, Review with anger, frustr­ation. Basic strength: Wisdom.
Common parts of the resolution of the Oedipus complex: intern­ali­zation, sublim­ation, identi­fic­ation
A distin­ctive defense mechanism in adoles­cence, Anna Freud said is asceticism
Anna Freud said the most powerful defense mechanism, which frequently works in conjun­ction with the other defenses, is repression
Reacti­on-­for­mation is the defense mechanism is most typically at play in the anal stage
Typical outcomes of the anal stage: a person who compul­sively checks for errors, a person who is very neat and orderly, a person who is extremely messy
What most puzzled Freud about the girl's Oedipus complex was why girls feel a need to resolve the crisis
Freud would suggest that a young man's anxiety over compet­ition probably reflects earlier problems at the third (phallic) stage
Clara Thompson said that penis envy in girls is actually a cry for equal opport­unity
In general, the strongest fixations seem to be due to excessive frustr­ation
Erikson's stages, compared to Freud's are more general
Erikson seems to regard identity forecl­osure as impove­rishing the person­ality
Erikson's stages, compared to Piaget's more matura­tio­nally governed
Erikson's stage of industry vs. inferi­ority is most closely related to Piaget's stage of concrete operat­ions. Erikson's stage of initiative vs. guilt is most closely related to Piaget's stage of preope­rat­ional thought.
Erikson and Piaget are in agreement in regards to whether the stages are qualit­atively different
Erikson's child rearing advice sounds most similar to that of Gesell
One of the criticisms of Erikson, advanced by Robert White, is that Erikson didn't capture all ego develo­pment in his concepts of modes
The issue of parental discipline usually first arises at Erikson's stage of autonomy vs. shame, doubt

Moral Develo­pment

3 Basic components of morality: Affective: feelings (guilt, concern for others’ feelings, and so on) that surround right or wrong actions and that motivate moral thoughts and actions, Cognitive: how we concep­tualize right and wrong and make decisions about how to behave (Resis­tance to Temptation and Self-C­ont­rol), Behavioral: how we behave when, for example, we experience the temptation to cheat or are called upon to help a needy person
Moral reasoning the thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong. Moral reasoning is believed to progress through a fixed and universal order of stages, each of which represents a consistent way of thinking about moral issues that is different from the stage preceding or following it
Founda­tional moral unders­tanding primarily influenced by parent­s/c­are­giv­ers­/ad­ults, Moral influences shift throughout adoles­cence to social peers
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Develo­pment
Premoral Period During the preschool years, children show little awareness or unders­tanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings
Hetero­nomous morality Children 6 to 10 years old take rules seriously, believing that they are handed down by parents and other authority figures and are sacred and unalte­rable, They judge rule violations as wrong based on the extent of damage done, not paying much attention to whether the violator had good or bad intentions
Autonomous morality At age 10 or 11, most children enter a final stage of moral develo­pment in which they begin to appreciate that rules are agreements between indivi­duals – agreements that can be changed through a consensus of those indivi­duals, In judging actions, they pay more attention to whether the person’s intentions were good or bad than to the conseq­uences of the act
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Develo­pment
Proposed three distinct levels of moral reasoning: precon­ven­tional, conven­tional, and postco­nve­ntional
Each level is based on the degree to which a person conforms to conven­tional standards of society
Precon­ven­tional Stage 1: Infancy: Obedie­nce­/Pu­nis­hment The child is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong.
Precon­ven­tional Stage 2: Pre-sc­hool: Indivi­dualism and Exchange: Self-i­nterest Interest shifts to reward to achieve greatest benefit to oneself
Conven­tional Stage 3: School­-age: Good Interp­ersonal Relati­ons­hips: Conformity and Interp­ersonal Accord Effort to secure approval and maintain friendship with others, aka: the good boy/girl stage "­fig­hting is wrong because it is mean and hurts others­"
Conven­tional Stage 4: School­-age: Authority and Social Order orient­ation toward fixed rules and mainta­ining order
Postco­nve­ntional Stage 5: Teens: Social Contact and Individual Rights Mutual benefit, recipr­ocity. Morally right and legally right are not the same. Utilit­arian rules that benefit everyone.
Postco­nve­ntional Stage 6: Adulthood: Universal Principals Morality is based on principals that transcend mutual benefit
Kohlberg's stage 7 may include a spiritual sense of oneness with the cosmos
Kohlberg said each stage in his theory is more cognit­ively adequate than the preceding stage
In Kohlberg's just community approach the moral thinking of high school students advances somewhat, primarily from stage 2 to 3
Most urban middle class adults in the United States reason at Kohlberg's stage 4
Moral reasoning is an emic (culture specific) process. One’s moral compass is developed and sharpened within one’s societal context. (Different cultures have different moral orient­ati­ons).
Carol Gilligan on Women and Moral Develo­pment: argued that women's morality is more relati­ons­hip­-or­iented than men's


Normal Autistic Phase: Birth to 1 Month A newborn infant is blissfully unaware of anything but its own needs. At this stage, the mother needs to be available to lovingly meet the baby's needs and introduce tender, caring intera­ction.
Normal Symbiotic Phase: 1 to 5 Months Babies begin to learn about their world and develop their very first human bond with the mother. Positive stimuli (cuddling, smiling, engaged attention) and relief of discomfort (feeding promptly when hungry, changing of soiled nappies, providing an approp­riate sleep enviro­nment) all help the infant to develop a trust that their needs will be met, building a basis for security and confid­ence.
Sub-phase One: Differ­ent­iation 5 to 10 Months Baby develops an increased interest in both the mother and the outside world. The baby contin­ually "­checks back," looking at other things but then looking for the mother as a reassu­rance that she is still present.
Sub-phase Two: Practicing 10 to 16 Months Still not ready for extended separation toddlers will sometimes choose to separate briefly from mom, but will typically return quickly for assurance and comfort. Some indepe­ndent play time is enjoyed, but often the baby is only comfor­table to play on their own when the mother is within the child's line of sight. Mahler described this "­hat­chi­ng" as the true birth the individual occurs, with the child beginning to have a basic sense of self not directly connected to the mother.
Sub-phase Three: Rappro­chement 16 to 24 Months One minute, they are running from their mothers, refusing her attention or wishes, and the next they are anxiously clinging to her. Mahler referred to this as "­amb­ite­nde­ncy­" and explained that this behaviour is repres­ent­ative of a toddler's sometimes opposing desires and needs. It is during these months that children first get a real sense that they are indivi­duals, separate from their mothers
Sub-phase Four: Consol­idation and Object Constancy 24 to 36 Months At some point around the second birthday, children begin to be more comfor­table separating from their mothers, knowing that they will return (object consta­ncy). This ability makes it possible for two year olds to accept that they are unique from their mothers without anxiety, allowing the child to engage substi­tutes for the mother when she is absent.
Mahler's normal autism: inner focus, still achieving physio­logical balance, stimulus barrier
In therapy with severely disturbed children, one of Mahler's most common goals was to promote a more pleasu­rable symbiosis
Mahler's belief in the careta­ker's patient availa­bility is similar to the view of both Montessori and Ainsworth
Mahler's concept of object constancy is an internal image of the mother

Other Terms

Guided Partic­ipation: the child themselves has a great impact on a child's social­ization
Adaptive Logic: adapting to the enviro­nment and the ability to do things indepe­ndently
Dialec­tical Thinking: the ability to view issues from multiple perspe­ctives
The "­Tools of the Mind" project tries to teach self-r­egu­lation through play
research on televised aggression as fairly conclusive
reciprocal interw­eaving: A 4-year-old who had begun drawing in a clockwise direction shifts to a counte­rcl­ockwise prefer­ence.
illust­rates the principle of functional asymmetry: tonic neck
A pediat­rician expects the infant to demons­trate the pincer grasp at ten months
Bell and Ainsworth: infants at one year of age are relatively indepe­ndent
Some contem­porary etholo­gists prefer the term "­sen­sitive period­" to "­cri­tical period­" to convey more flexible boundaries
Scaffo­lding gradually removes assistance to the child
Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experi­ence. 1) In associated learning, we learn to associate two stimuli or a response and its conseq­uences. 2) In observ­ational learning, we learn by watching others' experi­ences and examples